Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Rusa > Rusa unicolor
 

Rusa unicolor (sambar)

Synonyms: Cervus unicolor

Wikipedia Abstract

The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China and Southeast Asia. Although it primarily refers to R. unicolor, the name "sambar" is also sometimes used to refer to the Philippine deer (called the "Philippine sambar") and the Javan rusa (called the "Sunda sambar"). The name is also spelled sambur, or sambhur.
View Wikipedia Record: Rusa unicolor

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  407.86 lbs (185.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  22.05 lbs (10.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 9 months
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  90 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  7 months 22 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  26 years
Weaning [1]  7 months 3 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Bawangling National Nature Reserve V 10693 Hainan, China  
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chail Sanctuary IV 31333 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Changshanerhai Nature Reserve V 139448 Yunnan, China  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Daweishan Nature Reserve V 122415 Yunnan, China  
Doi Pha Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 144177 Thailand  
Doi Suthep-pui National Park II 70007 Thailand  
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Gomardah Sanctuary IV 72320 Chhattishgarh, India  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 558864 Laos  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 298416 Thailand  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Naga Hills Game Reserve   Myanmar      
Nam Et National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 636243 Laos  
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Nam Kong National Biodiversity Conservation Area   Laos      
Nam Phoun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 439874 Laos  
Nam Xam National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 186111 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Narsinghgarh Sanctuary IV   Madhya Pradesh, India  
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phou Loey National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 376767 Laos  
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phou Xiengthong National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 281641 Laos  
Phu Chong - Na Yoi National Park II 171322 Thailand
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary III 244241 Myanmar  
Pong Lake Sanctuary IV 61391 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park II 155253 Karnataka, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary IV 241622 Thailand  
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Shwe U Daung Reserve Wildlife Sanctuary III 21583 Myanmar  
Siberut National Park II 481789 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sinharaja Forest Reserve IV 16201 Sri Lanka  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tamor Pingla Sanctuary IV 148780 Chhattishgarh, India  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wilpattu National Park II 320298 Sri Lanka  
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xe Bang Nouane National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 322522 Laos  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Prey / Diet

Capparis rotundifolia[3]
Catunaregam spinosa[3]
Choerospondias axillaris (Nepali hog plum)[4]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[5]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[5]
Ficus fulva[5]
Ficus hispida[5]
Ficus variolosa[5]
Helicteres isora[3]
Phyllanthus emblica (emblic)[6]
Tectona grandis (teak)[3]
Wrightia tinctoria[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)2
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)2
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)2
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)2
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)3
Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)2
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)2
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)2
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)2
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)2
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)2
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)2
Cynopterus horsfieldii (Horsfield's fruit bat)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Cynopterus titthaecheilus (Indonesian short-nosed fruit bat)2
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)2
Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant)5
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)2
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)2
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)3
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)2
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)3
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)2
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)2
Macroglossus sobrinus (greater long-tongued fruit bat)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)2
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)2
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)2
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)3
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)3
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)2
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)2
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)2
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)2
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)2
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)2
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)2
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)2
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)2
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)2
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)2

Predators

Cuon alpinus (Dhole)[7]
Homo sapiens (man)[8]
Panthera leo persica (Asiatic lion)[4]
Panthera pardus (Leopard)[4]
Panthera tigris (Tiger)[8]
Panthera tigris tigris (Bengal tiger)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[9]
Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick)[9]
Apteragia odocoilei[9]
Bunostomum trigonocephalum[10]
Calicophoron calicophorum[10]
Calicophoron microbothrioides <Unverified Name>[10]
Carmyerius bulbosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Carmyerius spatiosus <Unverified Name>[10]
Carmyerius synethes <Unverified Name>[10]
Ceylonocotyle scoliocoelium <Unverified Name>[10]
Dermacentor auratus[9]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[9]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[9]
Echinococcus granulosus[10]
Elaeophora poeli <Unverified Name>[10]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[9]
Explanatum explanatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Fasciola gigantica[10]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Fischoederius japonicus <Unverified Name>[10]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[10]
Gastrothylax glandiformis <Unverified Name>[10]
Gigantocotyle explanatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Gongylonema pulchrum[9]
Haematopinus longus[8]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[10]
Homalogaster paloniae <Unverified Name>[10]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[9]
Leptospira interrogans[9]
Mecistocirrus digitatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[10]
Multiceps gaigeri <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum asperum <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum cervi <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum curvatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Oesophagostomum radiatum[10]
Ogmocotyle indica <Unverified Name>[10]
Orthocoelium dinniki <Unverified Name>[10]
Orthocoelium streptocoelium <Unverified Name>[10]
Paramphistomum cervi[10]
Paramphistomum liorchis <Unverified Name>[10]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia andreevae <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia houdemeri <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[10]
Trichocephalus globulosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Tricholipeurus lipeuroides[9]
Tricholipeurus parallelus[9]
Trichostrongylus askivali <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus axei[11]

Distribution

Australia; Croajingolong; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Food habits of ungulates in dry tropical forests of Gir Lion Sanctuary, Gujarat, India, Jamal A. KHAN, Acta Theriologica 39 (2): 185-193,1994.
4Rusa unicolor (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(871):1–30 (2011)
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
6Frugivory of Phyllanthus emblica at Rajaji National Park, northwest India, SOUMYA PRASAD, RAVI CHELLAM, JAGDISH KRISHNASWAMY, S. P. GOYAL, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 87, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2004
7Cuon alpinus, James A. Cohen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 100, pp. 1-3 (1978)
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
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