Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Chiroptera > Pteropodidae > Cynopterus > Cynopterus sphinx
 

Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)

Wikipedia Abstract

The greater short-nosed fruit bat or short-nosed Indian fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is found in South and Southeast Asia, where it is known as තල වවුලා (thala wawulaa) by Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka.
View Wikipedia Record: Cynopterus sphinx

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
24
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.84
EDGE Score: 2.29

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  75 grams
Birth Weight [1]  11 grams
Female Maturity [1]  5 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 5 months
Diet [2]  Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  100 %
Forages - Arboreal [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  4 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  42 days
Wing Span [3]  18 inches (.468 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Nicobar Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Doi Inthanon National Park II 115326 Thailand  
Doi Suthep-pui National Park II 70007 Thailand  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Chamao-Khao Wong National Park II 20311 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Tha Phet Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Laem Son National Park Marine National Park II 69145 Thailand
Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 298416 Thailand  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Nong Thung Thong Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phou Loey National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 376767 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Biosphere Reserve 19294 Thailand  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sinharaja Forest Reserve IV 16201 Sri Lanka  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  
Thale Noi Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area III   Thailand  
Tham Pha Tha Phon Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Annona squamosa (sugar apple)[4]
Anona squamosa[5]
Atalantia buxifolia (Box Orange)[5]
Cassia fistula (Pudding-pipe Tree)[4]
Cucumis maderaspatanus (scarlet-fruited gourd)[4]
Cullenia ceylanica[6]
Diospyros toposia[6]
Erythrina variegata (Indian Coral Tree)[7]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[8]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[8]
Ficus fistulosa[8]
Ficus fulva[8]
Ficus hispida[8]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[8]
Ficus nervosa subsp. pubinervis[8]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[8]
Ficus ribes[8]
Ficus septica[8]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[8]
Ficus tsjahela[8]
Holoptelea intergrifolia[7]
Leucaena leucocephala (Wild mimosa)[7]
Madhuca longifolia (mahua)[4]
Mangifera indica (mango)[5]
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)[5]
Mimusops elengi (Spanish cherry)[4]
Moringa oleifera (horseradishtree)[5]
Musa paradisiaca (Banana)[4]
Parkia biglandulosa (Kiboko)[5]
Phoenix sylvestris (wild date palm)[5]
Pithecellobium dulce (monkeypod)[5]
Senna siamea (Kassod Tree)[7]
Tamarindus indica (Tamarind)[7]
Terminalia catappa (india almond)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)4
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)3
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)3
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)3
Axis axis (chital)5
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)3
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)3
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)4
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)4
Cynopterus horsfieldii (Horsfield's fruit bat)5
Cynopterus titthaecheilus (Indonesian short-nosed fruit bat)6
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)3
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)6
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)5
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)4
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)5
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)3
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)3
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)5
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)3
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)3
Macroglossus sobrinus (greater long-tongued fruit bat)4
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)5
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)4
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)5
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)3
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)3
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)3
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)3
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)3
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)3
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)10
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)5
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)3
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)3
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)6
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)8
Rusa unicolor (sambar)3
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)3
Sus scrofa (wild boar)3
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)3
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)3

Predators

Bubo bubo bengalensis (Rock Eagle-owl)[9]

Providers

Shelter 
Borassus flabellifer (toddy palm)[5]
Caryota urens (jaggery palm)[5]
Coccothrinax argentea[5]
Corypha umbraculifera[5]
Livistona chinensis (fountain palm)[5]
Polyalthia longifolia[5]
Roystonea regia (royal palm)[5]
Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palmetto)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Lagaropsylla micula[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Allometry of Bat Wings and Legs and Comparison with Bird Wings, Ulla M. Norberg, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 1981 292, 359-398
4Temporal patterns of resource use by the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae), Elangovan, V | Marimuthu, G | Kunz, TH, Journal of Mammalogy [J. Mammal.]. Vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 161-165. 2001.
5Cynopterus sphinx, Jay F. Storz and Thomas H. Kunz, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 613, pp. 1-8 (1999)
6IDENTIFYING DIURNAL AND NOCTURNAL FRUGIVORES IN THE TERRESTRIAL AND ARBOREAL LAYERS OF A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST IN SRI LANKA, Palitha Jayasekara, Udayani Rose Weerasinghe, Siril Wijesundara & Seiki Takatsuki, ECOTROPICA 13: 7–15, 2007
7Folivory in Fruit-Eating Bats, with New Evidence from Artibeus jamaicensis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Thomas H. Kunz and Carlos A. Diaz, Biotropica, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 106-120
8"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
9Pande, S. & N. Dahanukar (2011). The diet of Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis and its agronomic significance. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(8): 2011–2017.
10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access