Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Chiroptera > Pteropodidae > Eidolon > Eidolon helvum
 

Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)

Wikipedia Abstract

The straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) is a large fruit bat that is the most widely distributed of all the African megabats. It is quite common throughout its area ranging from the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, across forest and savanna zones of sub-Saharan Africa. They have recently been classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List due to a decreasing population trend.
View Wikipedia Record: Eidolon helvum

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
31
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.98
EDGE Score: 2.77

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  306 grams
Birth Weight [1]  50 grams
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  9 months 5 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  65 days
Wing Span [3]  31 inches (.777 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African montane moorlands Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaic Nigeria Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests São Tomé and Príncipe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
Naute Dam Recreational Resort V 58352 Namibia  
Omo Strict Natural Reserve Forest Reserve 328086 Nigeria  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve Forestiere et de Faune du Dja Wildlife Reserve IV 1551322 Cameroon  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Araucaria cunninghamii (Hoop pine)[4]
Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine)[4]
Ficus lutea (West African rubbertree)[5]
Ficus mucuso[5]
Ficus natalensis (Natal Fig)[5]
Ficus sur (Cape fig)[6]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[5]
Ficus umbellata[5]
Ficus vallis-choudae[5]
Mangifera indica (mango)[6]
Milicia excelsa (african teak)[4]
Theobroma cacao (cacao)[4]
Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Andropadus importunus (Sombre Greenbul)2
Arizelocichla milanjensis (Stripe-cheeked Greenbul)1
Arizelocichla tephrolaema (Western Greenbul)2
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)2
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)3
Cephalophus adersi (Aders's duiker)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)4
Cercopithecus nictitans (white-nosed guenon)1
Cercopithecus pogonias (crowned guenon)1
Chlorocichla flaviventris (Yellow-bellied Greenbul)1
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)1
Columba delegorguei (Eastern Bronze-naped Pigeon)1
Columba larvata (Lemon Dove)1
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)1
Coracina caesia (Grey Cuckooshrike)1
Dicrurus adsimilis (Fork-tailed Drongo)1
Epomophorus gambianus (Gambian epauletted fruit bat)1
Epomops buettikoferi (Buettikofer's epauletted bat)1
Erythrocebus patas (patas monkey)1
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)1
Gorilla gorilla (gorilla)3
Gynaikothrips ficorum1
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)3
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)2
Micropteropus pusillus (Peters's dwarf epauletted fruit bat)1
Nanonycteris veldkampii (Veldkamp's bat)1
Nesocharis shelleyi (Shelley's Oliveback)1
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)2
Onychognathus morio (Red-winged Starling)1
Onychognathus walleri (Waller's Starling)2
Oriolus larvatus (Black-headed Oriole)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)4
Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Philantomba monticola (blue duiker)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Piliocolobus badius (western red colobus)1
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)1
Pogoniulus pusillus (Red-fronted Tinkerbird)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pteropus seychellensis (Seychelles flying fox)1
Pteropus voeltzkowi (Pemba flying fox)2
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rungwecebus kipunji (highland mangabey)1
Stactolaema leucotis (White-eared Barbet)1
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)1
Tauraco livingstonii (Livingstone's Turaco)1
Tauraco porphyreolophus (Purple-crested Turaco)1
Tauraco schalowi (Schalow's Turaco)1
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)5
Turdus olivaceus (Olive Thrush)1
Varecia variegata (ruffed lemur)1
Zosterops pallidus (Cape White-eye)2
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)1

Predators

Homo sapiens (man)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Thaumapsylla breviceps breviceps[7]
Thaumapsylla dina[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!
Akron Zoological Park
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Brevard Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Indianapolis Zoo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Lubee Bat Conservancy
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Oregon Zoo
Organization for Bat Conservation
Racine Zoological Gardens
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Toronto Zoo
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoo
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Range Map

Africa;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Allometry of Bat Wings and Legs and Comparison with Bird Wings, Ulla M. Norberg, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 1981 292, 359-398 4Folivory in Fruit-Eating Bats, with New Evidence from Artibeus jamaicensis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Thomas H. Kunz and Carlos A. Diaz, Biotropica, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 106-120 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access