Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Muroidea > Cricetidae > Chionomys > Chionomys nivalis
 

Chionomys nivalis (European snow vole)

Synonyms: Arvicola lebrunii; Arvicola leucurus; Chionomys nivalis wagneri; Hypudaeus alpinus; Hypudaeus nivicola; Hypudaeus petrophilus; Microtus hermonis; Microtus mirhanreini; Microtus nivalis abulensis; Microtus nivalis aquitanius; Microtus nivalis dementievi; Microtus nivalis malyi; Microtus nivalis olympius; Microtus nivalis satunini; Microtus nivalis trialeticus; Microtus pontius; Microtus radnensis; Microtus ulpius

Wikipedia Abstract

The European snow vole or snow vole (Chionomys nivalis and previously Microtus nivalis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It has dense, pale grey fur and a pale-coloured tail and can reach about 14 cm (5.5 in) long, with a tail which is 7 cm long. The European snow vole is native to mountainous parts of southern and eastern Europe and southwestern Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Chionomys nivalis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
23
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.5
EDGE Score: 2.25

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  54 grams
Birth Weight [2]  3.6 grams
Diet [3]  Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Plants [3]  70 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  30 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Gestation [2]  21 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aigüestortes 138461 Spain  
Alpi Carniche 48186 Italy  
Alpi Giulie 44561 Italy  
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Alpi Veglia e Devero - Monte Giove 37357 Italy  
Alta Valsesia e Valli Otro, Vogna, Gronda, Artogna e Sorba 46789 Italy  
Alte Valli Pesio e Tanaro 27869 Italy  
ALTO CINCA 36250 Spain  
Altopiano dei Sette Comuni 37036 Italy  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Corno alle Scale 11322 Italy  
Crinale dell’Appennino parmense 13047 Italy  
Dolomiti Friulane 90787 Italy  
Jaroszowiec 1445 Poland  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Lacines - Catena del Monteneve nel Parco Naturale Gruppo di Tessa 20003 Italy  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Mont Avic e Mont Emilius 77947 Italy  
Monte Cimone, Libro Aperto, Lago di Pratignano 12785 Italy  
Monte la Nuda, Cima Belfiore, Passo del Cerreto 8555 Italy  
Monte Prado 1527 Italy  
Monte Rondinaio, Monte Giovo 11982 Italy  
Monte Rosa 21095 Italy  
Monti Lessini - Pasubio - Piccole Dolomiti Vicentine 34278 Italy  
Monti Sibillini (versante umbro) 43725 Italy  
Muniellos 13756 Spain  
ORDESA Y MONTE PERDIDO 38568 Spain  
OROS GKIONA 54066 Greece  
OROS OLYMPOS 47295 Greece  
Orrido di Botri 603 Italy  
Ortles - Monte Madaccio nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio 10349 Italy  
Parco Naturale Dolomiti di Sesto 29386 Italy  
Parco Naturale Fanes - Senes - Braies 62896 Italy  
Parco Naturale Vedrette di Ries - Aurina 77376 Italy  
Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise ed aree limitrofe 126392 Italy  
Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso 175751 Italy  
Parco Nazionale della Maiella 183061 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Nazionale Gran Sasso - Monti della Laga 354129 Italy  
Ponga-Amieva 69437 Spain  
Redes 93413 Spain  
Retezat National Park II 94183 Romania
SIERRA DE AYLLON 225747 Spain  
Sirente Velino 146123 Italy  
Somiedo Nature Park 71999 Spain  
Tatry 51937 Poland  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Triglav National Park II   Slovenia
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
Ultimo - Solda nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio 69162 Italy  
Val d'Ozola, Monte Cusna 12041 Italy  
Val di Fosse nel Parco Naturale Gruppo di Tessa 24926 Italy  
Val Ferret 22437 Italy  
Val Troncea 25032 Italy  
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Calamagrostis arundinacea[2]
Campanula patula subsp. abietina[2]
Crepis aurea[2]
Crepis pyrenaica[2]
Deschampsia cespitosa (Tufted Hair-grass)[2]
Festuca rubra (red fescue)[2]
Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry)[2]
Hieracium sabaudum (New England Hawkweed)[2]
Homogyne alpina (Alpine coltsfoot)[2]
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot deervetch)[2]
Poa annua (annual blue grass)[2]
Poa chaixii (broadleaf bluegrass)[2]
Potentilla aurea[2]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[2]
Vaccinium myrtillus (myrtle blueberry)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Bison bonasus (European bison)2
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)1
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)1
Coenonympha tullia (California ringlet)1
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)1
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)1
Dama dama (fallow deer)2
Erebia epiphron (Small Mountain Ringlet)1
Erebia ligea (Arran Brown)1
Lyrurus tetrix (Eurasian Black Grouse)1
Microtus agrestis (field vole)1
Microtus arvalis (common vole)1
Microtus oeconomus (tundra vole)1
Muscardinus avellanarius (hazel dormouse)1
Myodes rufocanus (gray red-backed vole)1
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)1
Otiorhynchus ovatus (Strawberry Root Weevil)1
Rupicapra pyrenaica (Pyrenean chamoios)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zygaena filipendulae (Six-spot Burnet)2

Predators

Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[2]
Vipera berus (Adder, Northern Viper)[2]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alveococcus multilocularis <Unverified Name>[4]
Amalaraeus arvicolae[5]
Amalaraeus improvisus[5]
Amalaraeus penicilliger kratochvili[5]
Amalaraeus penicilliger mustelae[5]
Amalaraeus penicilliger penicilliger[5]
Amphipsylla kuznetzovi kuznetzovi[5]
Amphipsylla rossica[5]
Amphipsylla sibirica hetera[5]
Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera[5]
Amphipsylla socia[5]
Andrya montana <Unverified Name>[4]
Anoplocephaloides dentata <Unverified Name>[4]
Anoplocephaloides rauschi <Unverified Name>[4]
Anoplocephaloides tenoramuraie <Unverified Name>[4]
Aprostatandrya macrocephala <Unverified Name>[4]
Aspiculuris aserbaidjanica <Unverified Name>[4]
Aspiculuris dinniki <Unverified Name>[4]
Aspiculuris tetraptera <Unverified Name>[4]
Atyphloceras nuperus[5]
Callopsylla caspia caspia[5]
Callopsylla saxatilis[5]
Carolinensis minutus <Unverified Name>[4]
Catenotaenia cricetorum <Unverified Name>[4]
Ctenophthalmus acuminatus[5]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus[5]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes provincialis[5]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes serbicus[5]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes verbanus[5]
Ctenophthalmus andorrensis andorrensis[5]
Ctenophthalmus baeticus baeticus[5]
Ctenophthalmus baeticus boisseauorum[5]
Ctenophthalmus bifurcus[5]
Ctenophthalmus bogatschevi bogatschevi[5]
Ctenophthalmus bureschi anatolicus[5]
Ctenophthalmus chionomydis[5]
Ctenophthalmus congener congener[5]
Ctenophthalmus egregius egregius[5]
Ctenophthalmus golovi alpestris[5]
Ctenophthalmus intermedius[5]
Ctenophthalmus iranus iranus[5]
Ctenophthalmus nifetodes tvrtkovici[5]
Ctenophthalmus nivalis cervinus[5]
Ctenophthalmus nivalis nivalis[5]
Ctenophthalmus nobilis nobilis[5]
Ctenophthalmus orphilus dolomiticus[5]
Ctenophthalmus orphilus orphilus[5]
Ctenophthalmus proximus[5]
Ctenophthalmus rettigi rettigi[5]
Ctenophthalmus shovi[5]
Ctenophthalmus teres[5]
Ctenophthalmus ubayensis[5]
Ctenophthalmus ubayensis ianlinni[5]
Ctenophthalmus uncinatus uncinatus[5]
Ctenophthalmus wagneri krym[5]
Ctenophthalmus wagneri schuriscus[5]
Ctenophthalmus wagneri wagneri[5]
Ctenophthalmus wladimiri[5]
Dicrocoelium lanceatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Doratopsylla dampfi dampfi[5]
Echinococcus multilocularis[4]
Frontopsylla elata caucasica[5]
Heligmosomoides glareoli <Unverified Name>[4]
Heligmosomoides laevis <Unverified Name>[4]
Heligmosomoides tatricus <Unverified Name>[4]
Heligmosomum costellatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Hepaticola hepatica <Unverified Name>[4]
Hydatigera taeniaeformis[4]
Hymenolepis asymmetrica <Unverified Name>[4]
Hymenolepis horrida[4]
Hystrichopsylla orientalis[5]
Hystrichopsylla satunini[5]
Hystrichopsylla talpae talpae[5]
Leptopsylla nana[5]
Leptopsylla sciurobia[5]
Leptopsylla taschenbergi cressida[5]
Leptopsylla taschenbergi taschenbergi[5]
Mastophorus muris[4]
Megabothris rectangulatus[5]
Megabothris turbidus[5]
Molineus patens <Unverified Name>[4]
Myoxopsylla laverani laverani[5]
Nosopsyllus durii[5]
Palaeopsylla soricis soricis[5]
Paradoxopsyllus hesperius[5]
Paraneopsylla dampfi[5]
Paranoplocephala dentata <Unverified Name>[4]
Paranoplocephala gracilis <Unverified Name>[4]
Paranoplocephala omphalodes <Unverified Name>[4]
Paranoplocephaloides rauschi <Unverified Name>[4]
Peromyscopsylla bidentata bidentata[5]
Peromyscopsylla fallax[5]
Peromyscopsylla silvatica[5]
Peromyscopsylla spectabilis viatrix[5]
Protospirura muris <Unverified Name>[4]
Pterygodermatites kolimensis <Unverified Name>[4]
Rhadinopsylla caucasica[5]
Rhadinopsylla integella[5]
Rhadinopsylla mesa[5]
Rhadinopsylla mesoides[5]
Rictularia proni[4]
Stenoponia ivanovi[5]
Syphacia nigeriana <Unverified Name>[4]
Taenia mustelae[4]
Taenia taeniaeformis <Unverified Name>[4]
Taenia tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichinella britovi <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichocephalus muris <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichuris muris <Unverified Name>[4]
Wagnerina schelkovnikovi[5]

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Felisa A. Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, S. K. Morgan Ernest, Kate E. Jones, Dawn M. Kaufman, Tamar Dayan, Pablo A. Marquet, James H. Brown, and John P. Haskell. 2003. Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403
2SNOW VOLE - Chionomys nivalis (Martins 1842), Janeau G., Aulagnier S., IBEX J.M.E. 4:1997
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
5International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access