Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Muridae > Microtus > Microtus agrestis
 

Microtus agrestis (field vole)

Wikipedia Abstract

The field vole or short-tailed vole, Microtus agrestis, is a grey-brown vole, around 110mm in length, with only a short tail. They are one of the most common mammals in Europe, ranging from the Atlantic coast to Lake Baikal. They are found in moist grassy habitats, such as woodland, marsh, or river banks. Although they dig burrows, they usually build nests above ground. As an important food source for owls and some other predators, their population peaks and troughs in a four-year cycle.
View Wikipedia Record: Microtus agrestis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.2
EDGE Score: 2.22

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  46 grams
Birth Weight [1]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  36 days
Male Maturity [1]  42 days
Gestation [1]  21 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Litters / Year [1]  4
Maximum Longevity [1]  5 years
Weaning [1]  13 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Afon Teifi/ River Teifi 1768 Wales, United Kingdom  
Ardvar and Loch a`Mhuilinn Woodlands 1992 Scotland, United Kingdom
Azas Zapovednik Ia 742280 Tuva, Russia
Babia Góra National Park II 4492 Poland
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Lawers 12423 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bideford Bay Biosphere Reserve   England, United Kingdom
Brown Moss 79 England, United Kingdom  
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen 10186 Wales, United Kingdom
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Drumochter Hills 23340 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dunkeld–Blairgowrie Lochs 1058 Scotland, United Kingdom
Durness 2997 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Dyfi National Nature Reserve   Wales, United Kingdom
East Carpathians National Park II   Slovakia  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Foinaven 36684 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Karkonosze National Park II 45907 Poland
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
Kostomukshsky Zapovednik Ia 117269 Karelia, Russia
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Loch Druidibeg National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moor House-Upper Teesdale Biosphere Reserve 18254 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Ness Woods 2093 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Norfolk Coast Biosphere Reserve   England, United Kingdom        
North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/ Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro 780 Wales, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
ORDESA Y MONTE PERDIDO 38568 Spain  
Parc National Suisse National Park Ia   Switzerland
Peak District Dales 5748 England, United Kingdom
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
River Eden 6087 England, United Kingdom  
Roudsea Wood and Mosses 1163 England, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Sound of Arisaig (Loch Ailort to Loch Ceann Traigh) 11260 Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Lizard 8048 England, United Kingdom    
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Triglav National Park II   Slovenia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Carex rostrata (beaked sedge)[2]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[2]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)1
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian Goose)2
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)2
Ancylis badiana1
Anser anser (Greylag Goose)2
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)1
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)1
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)1
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)1
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)3
Bruchus rufipes1
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)1
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)1
Capreolus capreolus (western roe deer)1
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)1
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)1
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)1
Chionomys nivalis (European snow vole)1
Chrysoteuchia culmella (Garden Grass-veneer Moth)1
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)2
Coenonympha tullia (California ringlet)1
Coleophora deauratella1
Colias croceus (Clouded Yellow Butterfly)1
Colias hyale (Pale Clouded Yellow)1
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)2
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)2
Dasineura trifolii (clover leaf midge)1
Deltocephalus pulicaris1
Deltote bankiana (Silver Barred)1
Eilema complana (Scarce Footman)1
Elachista humilis1
Elachista luticomella1
Elymana sulphurella1
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)1
Euxoa nigricans (Garden Dart)1
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)1
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)1
Grus grus (Common Crane)2
Lasiocampa trifolii (Grass Eggar)1
Leptidea sinapis (Wood White)1
Leptopterna ferrugata1
Lepus europaeus (European Hare)1
Limnobaris t-album1
Macrosteles laevis1
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)1
Melitaea cinxia (Glanville Fritillary)1
Melitta leporina1
Meromyza saltatrix (Wheat Stem Maggot Fly)1
Microtus arvalis (common vole)2
Nomophila noctuella (Rush Veneer Moth)1
Notus flavipennis1
Omphaloscelis lunosa (Lunar Underwing Moth)1
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)1
Opomyza germinationis1
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)1
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)1
Oscinella nitidissima1
Oscinella pusilla1
Paradelphacodes litoralis1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)1
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)1
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)3
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)1
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)1
Piezodorus lituratus (Gorse Shield Bug)1
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)1
Psammotettix confinis1
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)1
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)1
Scotopteryx bipunctaria1
Scotopteryx chenopodiata (Shaded Broad-bar Moth)2
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)1
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)1
Thymelicus sylvestris (Small Skipper)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zygaena filipendulae (Six-spot Burnet)1
Zygaena lonicerae (Narrow-Bordered Five-Spot Burnet)1

Predators

Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[3]
Aegolius funereus funereus (Boreal owl)[4]
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)[2]
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)[3]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[5]
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)[2]
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)[2]
Circus aeruginosus (Western Marsh Harrier)[6]
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)[2]
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)[2]
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)[2]
Mustela erminea (Ermine)[2]
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)[2]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[2]
Strix uralensis (Ural Owl)[3]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[2]
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[8]
Amalaraeus arvicolae[9]
Amalaraeus penicilliger kratochvili[9]
Amalaraeus penicilliger mustelae[9]
Amalaraeus penicilliger pedias[9]
Amphipsylla rossica[9]
Amphipsylla sibirica[9]
Amphipsylla sibirica sibirica[9]
Anoplocephaloides dentata <Unverified Name>[8]
Aprostatandrya caucasica <Unverified Name>[8]
Aprostatandrya macrocephala <Unverified Name>[8]
Aprostatandrya microti <Unverified Name>[8]
Arostrilepis horrida <Unverified Name>[8]
Atyphloceras nuperus[9]
Capillaria hepatica[8]
Capillaria murissylvatici <Unverified Name>[8]
Carolinensis minutus <Unverified Name>[8]
Catallagia dacenkoi[9]
Catenotaenia asiatica <Unverified Name>[8]
Catenotaenia cricetorum <Unverified Name>[8]
Catenotaenia pusilla <Unverified Name>[8]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[9]
Cladotaenia globifera[8]
Corrigia vitta <Unverified Name>[8]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes bosnicus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes eurous[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes fennicus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes peusianus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes provincialis[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes smitianus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes verbanus[9]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes wagnerianus[9]
Ctenophthalmus andorrensis andorrensis[9]
Ctenophthalmus apertus allani[9]
Ctenophthalmus apertus apertus[9]
Ctenophthalmus assimilis assimilis[9]
Ctenophthalmus baeticus arvernus[9]
Ctenophthalmus baeticus baeticus[9]
Ctenophthalmus baeticus boisseauorum[9]
Ctenophthalmus bisoctodentatus heselhausi[9]
Ctenophthalmus congener congener[9]
Ctenophthalmus nivalis nivalis[9]
Ctenophthalmus nobilis dobyi[9]
Ctenophthalmus nobilis nobilis[9]
Ctenophthalmus nobilis vulgaris[9]
Ctenophthalmus obtusus[9]
Ctenophthalmus orphilus orphilus[9]
Ctenophthalmus pisticus pisticus[9]
Ctenophthalmus ubayensis ubayensis[9]
Ctenophthalmus uncinatus uncinatus[9]
Cysticercus longicollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Cysticercus taeniae <Unverified Name>[8]
Cysticercus talpae <Unverified Name>[8]
Doratopsylla dasycnema dasycnema[9]
Heligmosomoides glareoli <Unverified Name>[8]
Heligmosomoides kratochvili <Unverified Name>[8]
Heligmosomoides laevis <Unverified Name>[8]
Heligmosomum costellatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Heligmosomum mixtum <Unverified Name>[8]
Hepaticola hepatica <Unverified Name>[8]
Hydatigera taeniaeformis[8]
Hymenolepis arvicolae <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis arvicolina <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis asymmetrica <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis diminuta <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis horrida[8]
Hystrichopsylla orientalis[9]
Hystrichopsylla talpae talpae[9]
Leptopsylla segnis (European mouse flea)[9]
Limnolepis transfuga <Unverified Name>[8]
Longistriata minuta <Unverified Name>[8]
Mastophorus muris[8]
Mediogonimus jourdanei <Unverified Name>[8]
Megabothris rectangulatus[9]
Megabothris turbidus[9]
Megabothris walkeri[9]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[9]
Notocotylus neyrai <Unverified Name>[8]
Notocotylus noyeri <Unverified Name>[8]
Palaeopsylla soricis soricis[9]
Palaeopsylla soricis starki[9]
Palaeopsylla soricis vesperis[9]
Parandrya feodorovi <Unverified Name>[8]
Paranoplocephala blanchardi <Unverified Name>[8]
Paranoplocephala dentata <Unverified Name>[8]
Paranoplocephala gracilis <Unverified Name>[8]
Paranoplocephala omphalodes <Unverified Name>[8]
Paruterina candelabraria <Unverified Name>[8]
Pelodera strongyloides[8]
Peromyscopsylla bidentata bidentata[9]
Peromyscopsylla bidentata gervasii[9]
Peromyscopsylla fallax[9]
Peromyscopsylla silvatica[9]
Peromyscopsylla spectabilis spectabilis[9]
Plagiorchis agrestis <Unverified Name>[8]
Plagiorchis arvicolae <Unverified Name>[8]
Plagiorchis elegans[8]
Plagiorchis vespertilionis[8]
Protospirura muris <Unverified Name>[8]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[9]
Rhadinopsylla integella[9]
Rhadinopsylla isacantha[9]
Rhadinopsylla pentacantha[9]
Rhadinopsylla pseudodahurica[9]
Rodentolepis asymmetrica <Unverified Name>[8]
Skrjabinotaenia lobata <Unverified Name>[8]
Strobilocercus fasciolaris <Unverified Name>[8]
Syphacia montana <Unverified Name>[8]
Syphacia nigeriana <Unverified Name>[8]
Syphacia obvelata[8]
Syphacia stroma <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia crassiceps[8]
Taenia intermedia <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia martis <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia mustelae[8]
Taenia taeniaeformis <Unverified Name>[8]
Taenia tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichocephalus muris <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichuris arvicolae <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichuris muris <Unverified Name>[8]
Typhloceras poppei poppei[9]
Vampirolepis ampla <Unverified Name>[8]
Vampirolepis asymmetrica <Unverified Name>[8]
Vampirolepis straminea <Unverified Name>[8]

Range Map

Link to Map

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Carleton M,D., 2004-06-09, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Ecology of Commanster 3Avian and mammalian predators of shrews in Europe: regional differences, between-year and seasonal variation, and mortality due to predation, Erkki Korpimäki & Kai Norrdahl, Ann. Zool. Fennici 26:389-400. 1989 4Prey choice of Tengmalm's owls (Aegolius funereus funereus): preference for substandard individuals?, Vesa Koivunen, Erkki Korpimäki, Harri Hakkarainen, and Kai Norrdahl, Can. J. Zool. 74: 816-823 (1996) 5DIET COMPOSITION OF THE LONG-EARED OWL IN SLOVENIA: SEASONAL VARIATION IN PREY USE, DAVORIN TOME, J Raptor Res. 28(4):253-258 6Nestling diet and parental provisioning behaviour in the Marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Marcin BRZEZIŃSKI, Michał ŻMIHORSKI, Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2009, Volumen 19, Numerus 2 7Food habits of Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae) in Bieszczady (south-eastern Poland), BARTŁOMIEJ NAJBAR, Vertebrate Zoology 57 (1) 2007, 73-77 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access