Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Strigiformes > Strigidae > Bubo > Bubo scandiacus
 

Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl; harfang des neiges)

Synonyms: Bubo virginianus wapacuthu; Nyctea scandiaca

Wikipedia Abstract

The snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) is a large, white owl of the typical owl family. Snowy owls are native to Arctic regions in North America and Eurasia. Younger snowy owls start with darker plumage, which turns lighter as they get older. Males are almost all white, while females have more flecks of gray plumage.
View Wikipedia Record: Bubo scandiacus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.50 lbs (2.04 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  45 grams
Female Weight [1]  5.02 lbs (2.28 kg)
Male Weight [1]  3.98 lbs (1.81 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  26.2 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Northern U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Generalist, Agricultural
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  32 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  28 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daune 29676 Sweden  
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Frostvikenfjällen 231768 Sweden  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Gitsfjället 99170 Sweden  
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Marsfjället 212792 Sweden  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Norra Borgafjäll 32220 Sweden  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Satsfjället 29271 Sweden  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sjaunja 695284 Sweden  
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Södra Gardfjället 91675 Sweden  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Umeälvens delta och slätter 8341 Sweden  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Vardo- Laster- och Fjällfjällen 262367 Sweden  
Vindelfjällen 1370631 Sweden  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vålådalen 299933 Sweden  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Emblem of

Quebec

Prey / Diet

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)[5]
Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)[5]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[5]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[5]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[5]
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)[5]
Dicrostonyx groenlandicus (northern collared lemming)[6]
Dicrostonyx torquatus (Arctic lemming)[7]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[5]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[5]
Histrionicus histrionicus (Harlequin Duck)[5]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[5]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[5]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[7]
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)[5]
Lepus arcticus (Arctic Hare)[8]
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter)[5]
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)[5]
Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow)[5]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[5]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[9]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[5]
Phenacomys ungava (eastern heather vole)[10]
Polysticta stelleri (Steller's Eider)[5]
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)[5]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[5]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[5]
Urocitellus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)[11]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)2
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)5
Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)1
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)2
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)1
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)1
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Lynx canadensis (lynx)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)1
Martes americana (American Marten)2
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)2
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)1
Neovison vison (American Mink)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Stercorarius longicaudus (Long-tailed Jaeger)3
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)2
Stercorarius pomarinus (Pomarine Skua)2
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk-Owl)1
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)1
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)1
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)4
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)4

Predators

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]
Homo sapiens (man)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Capillaria tenuissima <Unverified Name>[12]
Cyrnea longispicula <Unverified Name>[12]
Microtetrameres canadensis <Unverified Name>[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Aqua Zoo Friesland
Aquarium du Quebec
Artis Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Banham Zoo Ltd.
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
Beale Park
Bergen County Zoological Park
Bird Park Marlow
Birdland Park & Gardens
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Camperdown Wildlife Centre
Cape May County Park Zoo
Chahinkapa Zoo
Combe Martin Wildlife & Dinosaur Park
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Dakota Zoo
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Dierenpark Wissel
Dierenrijk Europa
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Drusillas Zoo Park
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounter
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoo
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granby
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
Guldborgsund Zoo & Botanical Garden
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Helsinki Zoo
Highland Wildlife Park
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Kishinev Zoopark
Kittenberger Zoo
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Kyiv Zoological Park
Lake Superior Zoological Gardens
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Lehigh Valley Zoo
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburg
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Linton Zoological Gardens
Lotherton Bird Garden
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moonridge Animal Park
Moscow Zoological Park
Mulhouse Zoo
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Niedersächsische Landesforsten
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Nordens Ark
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
NY State Zoo at Thompson Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Ogrod Zoobotaniczny Torun
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Olmense Zoo
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Ouwehand Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de Lille
Parco Natura Viva
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Queens Zoo
Ranua Wildlife Park
Riga Zoo
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Rotterdam Zoo
Safari de Peaugres
Saitama Children's Zoo
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Silesian Zoological Garden
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tallinn Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
The Hawk Conservancy
The Raptor Foundation
Thoiry Zoological Park
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Tiergarten Bernburg
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Tropical Butterfly House
Trotter's World of Animals
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Utica Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre
Walford & North Shropshire College
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendael
Wilhelma Zoo
Wingham Wildlife Park
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
World Owl Trust
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo am Meer Bremerhaven GmbH
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Parc Overloon
Zoo Safari Swierkocin
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoo Zürich
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)
Zoological Garden of Polish Fauna
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Kerlinger, P. & Lein, MR (1988) Causes of mortality, fat condition, and weights of wintering Snowy Owls. J. Field Orn. 59: 7–12
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6OLIVIER GILG1, BENOÎT SITTLER, AND ILKKA HANSKI, WILL COLLARED LEMMINGS AND THEIR PREDATORS BE THE FIRST VERTEBRATES TO “FALL OVER THE CLIFF” IN GREENLAND DUE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGES? Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World – Conference Proceedings 2011, p. 131-132
7Predator–prey relationships: arctic foxes and lemmings, Anders Angerbjorn, Magnus Tannerfeldt and Sam Erlinge, Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 34-49
8Lepus arcticus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 457, pp. 1-9 (1994)
9Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997)
10Phenacomys ungava (Rodentia: Cricetidae), JANET K. BRAUN, SARA B. GONZALEZ-PEREZ, GARRETT M. STREET, JENNIE M. MOOK, AND NICHOLAS J. CZAPLEWSKI, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 45(899):18–29 (2013)
11Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985)
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access