Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Coraciiformes > Alcedinidae > Todiramphus > Todiramphus sanctus
 

Todiramphus sanctus (Sacred Kingfisher)

Synonyms: Halcyon sancta; Todirhamphus sanctus

Wikipedia Abstract

The sacred kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus) is a medium-sized woodland kingfisher that occurs in mangroves, woodlands, forests, and river valleys in Australia, New Zealand, and other parts of the western Pacific. In New Zealand the species is also known by its Māori name kōtare.It is called “sacred” for it was said to be a holy bird for Polynesians, who believed it to have control over the waves.
View Wikipedia Record: Todiramphus sanctus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
15
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.09302
EDGE Score: 1.40928

Attributes

Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Ectothermic [1]  10 %
Diet - Endothermic [1]  10 %
Diet - Fish [1]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [1]  70 %
Forages - Aerial [1]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [1]  20 %
Forages - Understory [1]  30 %
Forages - Ground [1]  40 %
Clutch Size [3]  5
Incubation [2]  17 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Admiralty Islands lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Australian Alps montane grasslands Australia Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Biak-Numfoor rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Buru rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Cantebury-Otago tussock grasslands New Zealand Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Range montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Ranges xeric scrub Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Australia mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Einasleigh upland savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Fiordland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Gibson desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Sandy-Tanami desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Victoria desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Halmahera rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Huon Peninsula montane rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests New Zealand Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Kimberly tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lord Howe Island subtropical forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Louisiade Archipelago rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mitchell grass downs Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nelson Coast temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
New Britain-New Ireland montane rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
New Caledonia dry forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
New Caledonia rain forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
New Guinea mangroves Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Mangroves
Norfolk Island subtropical forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
North Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern New Guinea montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northland temperate kauri forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pilbara shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Rakiura Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Richmond temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Seram rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Simpson desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Solomon Islands rain forests Solomon Islands Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
South Island montane grasslands New Zealand Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Australia temperate savanna Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sulawesi lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tasmanian Central Highland forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate rain forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Timor and Wetar deciduous forests East Timor, Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans Fly savanna and grasslands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trobriand Islands rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Victoria Plains tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Vogelkop montane rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Australian Mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Westland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yapen rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bald Rock National Park II 21998 New South Wales, Australia
Christmas Island National Park II 21698 Christmas Island, Australia
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Currawinya Lakes National Park II 372252 Queensland, Australia
Dunggir National Park II 6402 New South Wales, Australia
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Flinders Chase National Park II 81245 South Australia, Australia
Girraween National Park II 28978 Queensland, Australia
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve Ia 30987 Sulawesi, Indonesia  
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Kooragang Nature Reserve IV 8300 New South Wales, Australia  
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Lamington National Park II 50970 Queensland, Australia
Maria Island National Park II 28488 Tasmania, Australia
Maria National Park II 5735 New South Wales, Australia
Norfolk Island National Park II 1723 Australian external territories, Australia  
Purnululu National Park II 604999 Western Australia, Australia
Shoalwater and Corio Bays Area Ramsar Site   Queensland, Australia
South Taupo Wetland   North Island, New Zealand      
Sundown National Park II 30557 Queensland, Australia
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park II 332429 Northern Territory, Australia
Wasur-Rawa Biru National Park 605464 Papua, Indonesia  
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
East Melanesian Islands Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu No
New Caledonia New Caledonia No
New Zealand New Zealand No
Polynesia-Micronesia Fiji, Micronesia, Polynesia, Samoa, Tonga, United States No
Southwest Australia Australia No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Alcedoecus alatoclypeatus[4]
Centrorhynchus horridus[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zoosancta
Alice Springs Desert Park
Cleland Wildlife Park
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Hamilton Zoovagans
Healesville Sanctuary
Melbourne Zoosancta
Orana Wildlife Park
Perth Zoological Gardenssancta
Taronga Zoosancta
Territory Wildlife Park (Berry Springssancta
Wellington Zoo Trustvagans
Western Plains Zoosancta

Range Map

Australia; Croajingolong; Oceania; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
2del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access