Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Bucerotiformes > Bucerotidae > Rhyticeros > Rhyticeros undulatus
 

Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)

Synonyms: Aceros undulatus

Wikipedia Abstract

The wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus), also known as the bar-pouched wreathed hornbill, is a species of hornbill found in forests from far north-eastern India and Bhutan, east and south through mainland Southeast Asia and the Greater Sundas in Indonesia, except Sulawesi. It is 75–100 cm (30–39 in) long. Males weigh from 1.8 kg (4.0 lb) to 3.65 kg (8.0 lb), and females weigh from 1.36 kg (3.0 lb) to 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). Both sexes are similar to the respective sexes of the closely related plain-pouched hornbill, but the wreathed hornbill can be recognized by the dark bar on the lower throat (hence the alternative common name, bar-pouched). Though commonly considered monotypic, evidence suggests some geographical variation in the appearance.
View Wikipedia Record: Rhyticeros undulatus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
10
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
29
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.44446
EDGE Score: 2.24543

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.92 lbs (2.23 kg)
Female Weight [1]  4.30 lbs (1.95 kg)
Male Weight [1]  5.54 lbs (2.52 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  29 %
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  10 %
Forages - Canopy [2]  70 %
Forages - Ground [2]  30 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Incubation [3]  40 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows Malaysia Indo-Malayan Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Budo-Sungai Padi National Park II 84766 Thailand  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 558864 Laos  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Chamao-Khao Wong National Park II 20311 Thailand
Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36570 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park II 176398 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Mae Yom National Park II 123569 Thailand
Maenam Phachi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122816 Thailand  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Mu Ko Chang National Park Marine National Park II 168511 Thailand
Mu Ko Surin National Park Marine National Park II 39278 Thailand    
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phou Dene Dinh National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 463651 Laos  
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phu Chong - Na Yoi National Park II 171322 Thailand
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Prince Chumphon Park (North) Wildlife Sanctuary IV 152683 Thailand  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Biosphere Reserve 19294 Thailand  
Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary IV 241622 Thailand  
Si Phang Nga National Park II 60672 Thailand
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Tarutao National Park Marine National Park II 312077 Thailand  
Tasek Bera Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Xe Bang Nouane National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 322522 Laos  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Aglaia spectabilis[5]
Aphanamixis polystachya[5]
Cinnamomum subavenium[5]
Cryptocarya impressa[5]
Dysoxylum densiflorum[5]
Ficus acamptophylla[6]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[6]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[6]
Ficus callophylla[6]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[6]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[6]
Ficus dubia[6]
Ficus kerkhoveni[6]
Ficus kurzii[6]
Ficus pellucidopunctata[6]
Ficus ruginervia[6]
Ficus subcordata[6]
Ficus subgelderi[6]
Ficus sundaica[6]
Ficus xylophylla[6]
Horsfieldia glabra[5]
Livistona speciosa[5]
Polyalthia laui[5]
Polyalthia viridis[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acerodon jubatus (golden-capped fruit bat)2
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)3
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)8
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)8
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)4
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)6
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)2
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)3
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)5
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)9
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)5
Anorrhinus tickelli austeni (White-throated Brown Hornbill)6
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)12
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)13
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)3
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)4
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)11
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)11
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)4
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)3
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)5
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)6
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)10
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)12
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)10
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)2
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)2
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)8
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)7
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)11
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)2
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)5
Dicaeum concolor (Nilgiri Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)5
Ducula aenea (Green Imperial Pigeon)3
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)4
Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)10
Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)11
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)4
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)5
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)5
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)12
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)5
Lophura ignita (Crested Fireback)2
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)4
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)3
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)8
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)4
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)13
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)10
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)3
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)2
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)6
Megalaima incognita (Moustached Barbet)3
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)4
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)11
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)9
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)2
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)2
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)2
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)3
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)11
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)6
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)8
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)7
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)4
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)3
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)2
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)2
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)3
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)12
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)4
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)5
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)8
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)10
Rusa unicolor (sambar)2
Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)3
Sus barbatus (bearded pig)3
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)6
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)2
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)9
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)13
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)3
Treron vernans (Pink-necked Green Pigeon)2
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)6
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)3
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)6
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)2

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
Central Florida Zoological Park
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Greenville Zoo
HeverJardin d'Oiseaux Tropicaux
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Jackson Zoological Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
John G. Shedd Aquariumticehursti
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Kansas City Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Oakland Zoo
Ocean Park Corporation
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Ouwehand Zoo
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Ragunan Zoological Park
Rotterdam Zoo
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
Songkhla Zoo
St. Catherine's Wildlife Center
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tiergarten der Stadt Wels
Umgeni River Bird Park
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Zoo Atlanta
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)

Distribution

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Kemp, A. 1995. The Hornbills. Oxford: Oxford University Press
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5AN ASSESSMENT OF FOOD OVERLAP BETWEEN GIBBONS AND HORNBILLS, Chuti-on Kanwatanakid-Savini and Pilai Poonswad, Tommaso Savini, THE RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY 2009 57(1): 189–198
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access