Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Cotingidae > Procnias > Procnias tricarunculatus

Procnias tricarunculatus (Three-wattled Bellbird)

Synonyms: Procnias tricarunculata

Wikipedia Abstract

The three-wattled bellbird (Procnias tricarunculatus) is a Central American migratory bird of the cotinga family.One of four species of bellbird that live in Central and South America, the three-wattled bellbird is between 25 cm (9.8 in) and 30 cm (12 in) long. The body, tail, and wings of the male are uniformly chestnut-brown; its head, neck, and upper breast are white; and it has a black eye-ring, eye-stripe, and bill.
View Wikipedia Record: Procnias tricarunculatus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.97934
EDGE Score: 3.58122


Male Weight [3]  210 grams
Breeding Habitat [1]  Tropical cloud forests
Wintering Geography [1]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [1]  Tropical cloud forests
Diet [2]  Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  100 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  50 %
Forages - Understory [2]  50 %


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
La Selva Biological Station Protective Zone VI 6052 Costa Rica
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve   Costa Rica  
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Rara Avis Rainforest Reserve 3163 Costa Rica
Reserva de la Biosfera de la Amistad Biosphere Reserve II 493313 Costa Rica  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Arenal Hill Nicaragua A1, A2
Arenal-Monteverde Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Bocas del Toro Archipelago Panama A1  
Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor Costa Rica A1, A2, A4i  
Caribbean lowlands and wetlands Costa Rica A1, A2, A3, A4i
Central Volcanic Cordillera Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Cerro Hoya National Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Coiba National Park Panama A1, A2, A3  
Datanlí-El Diablo Hill Nicaragua A1, A2
El Chorogo-Palo Blanco Panama A1, A2, A3
El Jaguar Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
Fila Costeña Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Fortuna Forest Reserve Panama A1, A2, A3
General de División Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park Panama A1, A2
Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests Panama A1, A2
Kilambe Hill Nicaragua A1
La Amistad Caribe Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
La Amistad International Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Los Guatuzos Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
Los Santos, La Amistad Pacífico Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Maderas Volcano Nicaragua A2, A3
Maleku-Caño Negro Costa Rica A1
Miraflor Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
Musun Hill Nicaragua A1
Nicoya Peninsula Costa Rica A1, A3, A4i
Palo Seco Protection Forest Panama A1, A2, A3
Palo Verde Wetlands Costa Rica A1, A4i, A4iii
Peñas Blancas Massif Nicaragua A1
Quirragua Mountains and adjacent landscape Nicaragua A3
San San Pond Sak Wetlands Panama A1, A2, A3  
Santa Clara Panama A1, A2, A3
Santa Fé National Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula Costa Rica A1, A2, A3, A4i
Tárcoles, Carara and La Cangreja Costa Rica A1, A2
Tilarán Highlands Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Volcán Barú National Park Panama A1, A2, A3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Yes

Prey / Diet

Beilschmiedia pendula (slugwood)[4]
Citharexylum macradenium[4]
Damburneya salicina[5]
Ficus aurea (Florida strangler fig)[6]
Ficus pertusa[6]
Hasseltia floribunda[4]
Ocotea austinii[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey)1
Alouatta pigra (Mexican black howler monkey)2
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)2
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)2
Attila spadiceus (Bright-rumped Attila)1
Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Emerald Toucanet)6
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)1
Catharus aurantiirostris (Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush)1
Catharus mexicanus (Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush)1
Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)2
Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin)1
Chamaepetes unicolor (Black Guan)2
Chiroxiphia linearis (Long-tailed Manakin)3
Chlorophanes spiza (Green Honeycreeper)1
Chlorophonia callophrys (Golden-browed Chlorophonia)3
Chlorophonia occipitalis (Blue-crowned Chlorophonia)1
Cotinga amabilis (Lovely Cotinga)1
Cyanerpes cyaneus (Red-legged Honeycreeper)1
Dacnis venusta (Scarlet-thighed Dacnis)1
Dermanura tolteca (Toltec fruit-eating bat)2
Dives dives (Melodious Blackbird)1
Dryocopus lineatus (Lineated Woodpecker)1
Elaenia flavogaster (Yellow-bellied Elaenia)1
Elaenia frantzii (Mountain Elaenia)1
Euphonia affinis (Scrub Euphonia)1
Euphonia hirundinacea (Yellow-throated Euphonia)2
Euphonia laniirostris (Thick-billed Euphonia)1
Euphonia luteicapilla (Yellow-crowned Euphonia)2
Euphonia minuta (White-vented Euphonia)1
Icterus galbula (Northern Oriole)2
Icterus gularis (Altamira Oriole)1
Lepidothrix coronata (Blue-crowned Manakin)1
Melanerpes aurifrons (Golden-fronted Woodpecker)1
Melanerpes hoffmannii (Hoffmann's Woodpecker)1
Melanerpes pygmaeus (Yucatan Woodpecker)1
Melozone leucotis (White-eared Ground-Sparrow)1
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)1
Mionectes oleagineus (Ochre-bellied Flycatcher)1
Momotus momota (Blue-crowned Motmot)2
Myadestes melanops (Black-faced Solitaire)2
Myiarchus tuberculifer (Dusky-capped Flycatcher)1
Myiodynastes luteiventris (Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher)1
Myiozetetes similis (Social Flycatcher)1
Patagioenas fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon)3
Patagioenas leucocephala (White-crowned Pigeon)1
Pharomachrus mocinno (Resplendent Quetzal)7
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)1
Piculus rubiginosus (Golden-olive Woodpecker)1
Psilorhinus morio (Brown Jay)2
Pteroglossus torquatus (Collared Aracari)1
Pyrrhura picta (Painted Parakeet)1
Querula purpurata (Purple-throated Fruitcrow)1
Ramphastos sulfuratus (Keel-billed Toucan)3
Saltator maximus (Buff-throated Saltator)1
Semnornis frantzii (Prong-billed Barbet)2
Thraupis episcopus (Blue-grey Tanager)1
Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra)2
Trogon aurantiiventris (Orange-bellied Trogon)2
Trogon citreolus (Citreoline Trogon)1
Trogon collaris (Collared Trogon)1
Trogon melanurus (Black-tailed Trogon)1
Turdus albicollis (White-necked Thrush)1
Turdus assimilis (White-throated Thrush)2
Turdus grayi (Clay-colored Thrush)1
Turdus plebejus (Mountain Thrush)4
Tyrannus dominicensis (Grey Kingbird)1
Tyrannus savana (Fork-tailed Flycatcher)1
Uroderma bilobatum (tent-making bat)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Dallas World Aquarium

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Snow, D. W. 1982. The Cotingas. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press
4Tropical Fruit-Eating Birds and Their Food Plants: A Survey of a Costa Rican Lower Montane Forest, Nathaniel T. Wheelwright, William A. Haber, K. Greg Murray, Carlos Guindon, Biotropica Vol. 16, No. 3 (Sep., 1984), pp. 173-192
5A seven-year study of individual variation in fruit production in tropical bird-dispersed tree species in the family Lauraceae, NATHANIEL T. WHEELWRIGHT, "Frugivores and seed dispersal", (1986), pp. 19-35
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access