Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Psittaciformes > Psittacidae > Ara > Ara ambiguus

Ara ambiguus (Great Green Macaw)

Synonyms: Ara ambigua

Wikipedia Abstract

The great green macaw (Ara ambiguus), also known as Buffon's macaw or the great military macaw, is a Central and South American parrot found in Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Ecuador. This species live in the canopy of wet tropical forests and is highly dependent on the almendro tree (Dipteryx panamensis). Two allopatric subspecies are recognized; the nominate subspecies (Ara ambiguus ambiguus) occurs from Honduras to West Colombia, while Ara ambiguus guayaquilensis is isolated on the Pacific side of the continent in Ecuador, and possibly South-Western Colombia.
View Wikipedia Record: Ara ambiguus


Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Ara ambiguus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.64314
EDGE Score: 3.61483


Adult Weight [1]  2.87 lbs (1.30 kg)
Breeding Habitat [2]  Tropical evergreen forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Tropical evergreen forests
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  50 %
Forages - Canopy [3]  40 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  60 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  29 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cordillera Volcanica Central Forest Reserve VI 150571 Costa Rica  
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
La Selva Biological Station Protective Zone VI 6052 Costa Rica
Parque Nacional Fronterizo Darién National Park II 1382494 Panama  
Patuca National Park II 935848 Honduras  
Rara Avis Rainforest Reserve 3163 Costa Rica
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras      
Rus Rus Biological Reserve   Honduras      
Sureste de Nicaragua Biosphere Reserve 1897053 Atlántico Sur, Nicaragua  
Tawahka Anthropological Reserve 626425 Honduras  
Warunta   Honduras      

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Arenal-Monteverde Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Bagre Biological Corridor Panama A1
Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape Nicaragua A1, A2
Bosawas Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco Ecuador A1, A2, A3
Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor Costa Rica A1, A2, A4i  
Caribbean lowlands and wetlands Costa Rica A1, A2, A3, A4i
Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí Ecuador A1, A2, A3
Central Volcanic Cordillera Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
Cerro Hoya National Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Darién National Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests Panama A1, A2
Indio Maíz Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
La Amistad Caribe Costa Rica A1, A2, A3
La Amistad International Park Panama A1, A2, A3
Majé Hydrological Reserve Panama A1
Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape Nicaragua A1    
Musun Hill Nicaragua A1
Narganá Wildlands Area Panama A1, A2  
Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría Colombia A1, A2, A3
Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos Colombia A1, A2
Prinzapolka/Alamikamba Rivers Nicaragua A1, A2, A3
Punta Gorda Nicaragua A1
San Juan River: La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria Nicaragua A1
Serranía de Majé Panama A1, A2
Silva Hill Nicaragua A1
Territorio Étnico Awá y alrededores Ecuador A1, A2, A3
Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé Ecuador A1, A2, A3
Wawashan Nicaragua A1, A2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Dipteryx oleifera (Tonka Bean)[5]
Ficus crassinervia (jaguey blanco)[6]
Lecythis ampla[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta pigra (Mexican black howler monkey)1
Alouatta seniculus (red howler monkey)1
Aratinga pertinax (Brown-throated Parakeet)1
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)2
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)1
Ateles belzebuth (white-bellied spider monkey)1
Bassaricyon gabbii (Olingo)1
Carollia subrufa (gray short-tailed bat)1
Chiroderma villosum (hairy big-eyed bat)1
Dermanura phaeotis (pygmy fruit-eating bat)1
Forpus passerinus (Green-rumped Parrotlet)1
Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt's woolly monkey)1
Nasua narica (White-nosed Coati)1
Ortalis ruficauda (Rufous-vented Chachalaca)1
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)1
Platyrrhinus helleri (Heller's broad-nosed bat)1
Potos flavus (Kinkajou)1
Sciurus granatensis (red-tailed squirrel)1
Uroderma bilobatum (tent-making bat)1
Vampyressa pusilla (little yellow-eared bat)1
Vampyriscus nymphaea (striped yellow-eared bat)1
Vampyrodes caraccioli (great stripe-faced bat)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Melbourne Zoo
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Montecasino Bird Gardens
Mulhouse Zoo
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
Parque Recreativo y Zool. Piscilago
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Saitama Children's Zoo
San Diego Zooambigua
Sedgwick County Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tierwelt Herberstein
Umgeni River Bird Park
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologico Nacional Simon Bolivarambigua
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map

Middle America; South America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Ara ambiguus. Downloaded from on 06/09/2012.
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access