Apostle Islands National Lakeshore

Location:Wisconsin, United States
IUCN Category:II
Area:36,006 acres (14,571 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)


Western Great Lakes forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share60 %30 %10 %
Soil TypeEutric PodzoluvisolsEutric GleysolsLithosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainageModerately wellPoorImperfectly
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m15 mm
Topsoil Properties
Gravel1 %4 %26 %
Sand35 %37 %43 %
Silt54 %40 %34 %
Clay11 %23 %23 %
USDA TextureSilt loamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.49 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.36 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.2 %1.07 %1.4 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity48 cmol kg⁻¹39 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity9 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation55 %88 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases5.7 cmol kg⁻¹10 cmol kg⁻¹15.6 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium0 %2 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel4 %5 % 
Sand37 %36 % 
Silt43 %36 % 
Clay20 %28 % 
USDA TextureLoamClay loam 
Reference Bulk Density1.4 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.61 g/cm³1.5 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.25 %0.39 % 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity63 cmol kg⁻¹41 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity9 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation59 %90 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases4.9 cmol kg⁻¹11.7 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium0 %2 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263