Audubon National Wildlife Refuge

Location:North Dakota, United States
IUCN Category:IV
Area:14,642 acres (5,925 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data

Ecoregions

Northern short grasslands

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 A
  
Share60 %30 %10 %
Soil TypeHaplic KastanozemsLuvic KastanozemsEutric Regosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellModerately wellModerately well
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m150 m
Topsoil Properties
Gravel8 %8 %27 %
Sand34 %36 %47 %
Silt45 %41 %34 %
Clay21 %23 %19 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.29 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³1.21 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.28 %1.27 %0.97 %
PH7.47.36.4
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity81 cmol kg⁻¹66 cmol kg⁻¹41 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity21 cmol kg⁻¹23 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %79 %
Total Exchangeable Bases18.4 cmol kg⁻¹18.4 cmol kg⁻¹15.1 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate5.4 %4.5 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %3 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity1.6 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel5 %5 %28 %
Sand36 %29 %50 %
Silt43 %42 %32 %
Clay21 %29 %18 %
USDA TextureLoamClay loamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.44 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.42 g/cm³1.18 g/cm³1.46 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.51 %0.57 %0.4 %
PH7.97.96.9
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity97 cmol kg⁻¹68 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity19 cmol kg⁻¹24 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %85 %
Total Exchangeable Bases19.1 cmol kg⁻¹21.1 cmol kg⁻¹10.3 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate10.4 %10 %0.1 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %3 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity2.2 dS m-13.6 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.