Pipestone National Monument

Location:Minnesota, United States
IUCN Category:V
Area:326 acres (132 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfa (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: hot summer)

Ecoregions

Central tall grasslands

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 A
  
Share60 %20 %20 %
Soil TypeHaplic ChernozemsMollic GleysolsCalcaric Gleysols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellPoorPoor
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m150 m
Topsoil Properties
Gravel4 %4 %4 %
Sand22 %38 %35 %
Silt54 %40 %42 %
Clay24 %22 %23 %
USDA TextureSilt loamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.35 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.2 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³
Organic Carbon2.08 %1.74 %1.27 %
PH76.57.1
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity67 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity23 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %87 %82 %
Total Exchangeable Bases18.6 cmol kg⁻¹9.9 cmol kg⁻¹8.8 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0.3 %0 %1 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %2 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel20 %3 %5 %
Sand26 %37 %36 %
Silt52 %35 %47 %
Clay22 %28 %17 %
USDA TextureSilt loamClay loamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.36 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.89 %0.67 %0.42 %
PH7.477.7
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity72 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹38 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity17 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %94 %86 %
Total Exchangeable Bases16.1 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹9.5 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate6.8 %0.4 %3 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %1 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263