Voyageurs National Park

Location:Minnesota, United States
IUCN Category:II
Area:177,960 acres (72,018 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)

Ecoregions

Western Great Lakes forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share70 %30 %70 %30 %
Soil TypeEutric PodzoluvisolsHistosolsOrthic PodzolsLithosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumCoarseMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainageModerately wellVery poorSomewhat excessiveImperfectly
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m50 m15 mm
Phase 1  Stony 
Topsoil Properties
Gravel1 %15 %4 %26 %
Sand35 %26 %85 %43 %
Silt54 %35 %11 %34 %
Clay11 %39 %4 %23 %
USDA TextureSilt loamClayLoamy sandLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.49 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.36 g/cm³0.26 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.2 %35.27 %2.09 %1.4 %
PH5.454.57.6
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity48 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹98 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity9 cmol kg⁻¹80 cmol kg⁻¹10 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation55 %64 %16 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases5.7 cmol kg⁻¹45.4 cmol kg⁻¹2.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.6 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium0 %1 %1 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel4 %1 %5 % 
Sand37 %43 %84 % 
Silt43 %28 %11 % 
Clay20 %29 %5 % 
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoamy sand 
Reference Bulk Density1.4 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.61 g/cm³0.16 g/cm³1.51 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.25 %33.85 %0.59 % 
PH5.35.24.8 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity63 cmol kg⁻¹49 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity9 cmol kg⁻¹79 cmol kg⁻¹4 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation59 %59 %23 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases4.9 cmol kg⁻¹55.3 cmol kg⁻¹1.6 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium0 %1 %2 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263