Parque Nacional Guaramacal

Location:Venezuela
IUCN Category:II
Area:62,675 acres (25,364 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Am (Climate: equatorial; Precipitation: monsoonal)

Ecoregions

Cordillera de Merida páramo
Venezuelan Andes montane forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share70 %30 %45 %35 %20 %
Soil TypeDystric CambisolsHaplic AlisolsHumic AlisolsHaplic AcrisolsDystric Cambisols
Topsoil TextureFineMediumMediumFineFine
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately well
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m
Topsoil Properties
Gravel20 %4 %7 %5 %2 %
Sand14 %31 %27 %13 %8 %
Silt49 %46 %46 %32 %39 %
Clay37 %23 %27 %55 %53 %
USDA TextureSilty clay loamLoamClay loamClayClay
Reference Bulk Density1.26 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.3 g/cm³1.5 g/cm³1.27 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.8 %4.95 %4.15 %1.5 %2.93 %
PH4.24.55.94.14.5
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity28 cmol kg⁻¹33 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹5 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity17 cmol kg⁻¹25 cmol kg⁻¹19 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation27 %38 %47 %29 %27 %
Total Exchangeable Bases4.6 cmol kg⁻¹9.5 cmol kg⁻¹8.9 cmol kg⁻¹0.9 cmol kg⁻¹0.8 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %1 %1 %1 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity0 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel28 %1 %7 %43 %16 %
Sand18 %17 %29 %12 %6 %
Silt44 %47 %39 %28 %38 %
Clay38 %36 %32 %60 %56 %
USDA TextureSilty clay loamSilty clay loamClay loamClay (heavy)Clay
Reference Bulk Density1.27 g/cm³1.27 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³1.19 g/cm³1.19 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.3 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.1 %2.25 %2.88 %0.56 %2.21 %
PH4.34.75.84.64.4
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity30 cmol kg⁻¹37 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity16 cmol kg⁻¹19 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation38 %19 %57 %32 %39 %
Total Exchangeable Bases6.1 cmol kg⁻¹3.6 cmol kg⁻¹8 cmol kg⁻¹1 cmol kg⁻¹1.2 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %1 %1 %2 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity0 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-10 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263