Waterton Biosphere Reserve

Location:Alberta, Canada
IUCN Category:II
Area:121,459 acres (49,153 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)


North Central Rockies forests


Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
Share70 %30 % 
Soil TypeEutric CambisolsAlbic LuvisolsLuvic Chernozems
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellModerately wellModerately well
Available Water Capacity100 m150 m150 m
Phase 1Stony  
Topsoil Properties
Gravel9 %10 %4 %
Sand42 %37 %33 %
Silt36 %44 %41 %
Clay22 %19 %26 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.4 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³1.22 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1 %0.82 %1.74 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity55 cmol kg⁻¹53 cmol kg⁻¹69 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity16 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹21 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation93 %83 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases13.8 cmol kg⁻¹16.3 cmol kg⁻¹33.3 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %3.7 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel12 %19 %16 %
Sand40 %33 %33 %
Silt35 %35 %37 %
Clay25 %32 %30 %
USDA TextureLoamClay loamClay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.38 g/cm³1.32 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.58 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.4 %0.39 %0.78 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity51 cmol kg⁻¹56 cmol kg⁻¹65 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity15 cmol kg⁻¹21 cmol kg⁻¹21 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation93 %89 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases14.4 cmol kg⁻¹18.1 cmol kg⁻¹30.5 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0.1 %0 %8.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263