Triangolo Lariano

Area:1,465 acres (593 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cfb (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)
Natura 2000 Data Sheet:View Data Sheet  Explanatory notes


Alps conifer and mixed forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share45 %30 %25 %
Soil TypeEutric CambisolsHaplic LuvisolsRendzic Leptosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm30 cm
Available Water Capacity50 m50 m50 mm
Phase 1LithicLithic 
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm 
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm 
Soil Water RegimeWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 month 
Topsoil Properties
Gravel9 %4 %16 %
Sand42 %41 %37 %
Silt36 %37 %44 %
Clay22 %22 %19 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.4 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1 %0.74 %2.13 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity55 cmol kg⁻¹47 cmol kg⁻¹80 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity16 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹27 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation93 %91 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases14 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹28.8 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %6 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel12 %3 % 
Sand41 %37 % 
Silt34 %34 % 
Clay25 %29 % 
USDA TextureLoamClay loam 
Reference Bulk Density1.38 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.51 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.37 %0.36 % 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity55 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity15 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation93 %93 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases15.1 cmol kg⁻¹13.1 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate0.1 %0 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263