Abetina Reale, Alta Val Dolo

Location:Italy
Area:8,510 acres (3,444 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cfb (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)
Natura 2000 Data Sheet:View Data Sheet  Explanatory notes

Ecoregions

Appenine deciduous montane forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share50 %35 %8 %7 %50 %30 %10 %5 %5 %
Soil TypeDystric CambisolsCambic PodzolsUmbric LeptosolsHaplic LuvisolsDystric CambisolsEutric CambisolsHaplic LuvisolsLithic LeptosolsLithic Leptosols
Topsoil TextureCoarseCoarseCoarseCoarseMediumMediumMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm30 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm10 cm10 cm
DrainageWellSomewhat excessiveModerately wellModerately wellImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectly
Available Water Capacity50 m15 m15 mm75 m50 m50 m50 m15 mm15 mm
Phase 1StonyStonyStonyStonyLithicLithicLithic  
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cm20 - 40 cm None to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm  
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cm40 - 80 cm None to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm  
Soil Water RegimeNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month Wet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 month  
Topsoil Properties
Gravel10 %3 %10 %4 %10 %9 %4 %21 %21 %
Sand75 %85 %79 %82 %42 %42 %41 %42 %42 %
Silt15 %10 %13 %8 %38 %36 %37 %34 %34 %
Clay10 %5 %8 %10 %20 %22 %22 %24 %24 %
USDA TextureSandy loamLoamy sandLoamy sandLoamy sandLoamLoamLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.58 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.62 g/cm³1.59 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.49 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.37 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.7 %2.02 %2.59 %0.4 %1.45 %1 %0.74 %1.61 %1.61 %
PH5.14.34.76.55.16.66.57.57.5
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity21 cmol kg⁻¹78 cmol kg⁻¹24 cmol kg⁻¹48 cmol kg⁻¹32 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹47 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity5 cmol kg⁻¹5 cmol kg⁻¹8 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation28 %17 %86 %89 %38 %93 %91 %100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases1.5 cmol kg⁻¹2.5 cmol kg⁻¹5.2 cmol kg⁻¹5.9 cmol kg⁻¹4.3 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹15.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.5 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %3.9 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium5 %0 %0 %2 %2 %2 %1 %3 %3 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel9 %3 % 6 %19 %12 %3 %  
Sand68 %86 % 75 %45 %41 %37 %  
Silt17 %10 % 8 %35 %34 %34 %  
Clay15 %4 % 17 %20 %25 %29 %  
USDA TextureSandy loamLoamy sand Sandy loamLoamLoamClay loam  
Reference Bulk Density1.51 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³ 1.5 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³  
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.57 g/cm³ 1.57 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.51 g/cm³  
Organic Carbon0.27 %0.51 % 0.24 %0.5 %0.37 %0.36 %  
PH54.8 6.55.276.7  
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity31 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹ 53 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹  
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity5 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹ 10 cmol kg⁻¹9 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹  
Base Saturation36 %21 % 88 %33 %93 %93 %  
Total Exchangeable Bases1.4 cmol kg⁻¹1.5 cmol kg⁻¹ 8.1 cmol kg⁻¹2.6 cmol kg⁻¹15.1 cmol kg⁻¹13.1 cmol kg⁻¹  
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 % 0 %0 %0.1 %0 %  
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 0 %0 %0 %0 %  
Exchangeable Sodium5 %0 % 1 %2 %2 %1 %  
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1  
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263