Kwade Hoek

Location:Netherlands
Area:2,217 acres (897 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Köppen climate classification:Cfb (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)
Natura 2000 Data Sheet:View Data Sheet  Explanatory notes

Ecoregions

Atlantic mixed forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 ABC
    
Share60 %40 %80 %20 %75 %25 %
Soil TypeEutric FluvisolsEutric FluvisolsCalcaric FluvisolsCalcaric FluvisolsCalcaric FluvisolsEutric Fluvisols
Topsoil TextureFineMediumMediumFineCoarseCoarse
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageVery poorPoorPoorVery poorPoorPoor
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m
Root Obstacle60 - 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 month
Topsoil Properties
Gravel4 %4 %15 %4 %10 %18 %
Sand19 %39 %34 %14 %79 %80 %
Silt32 %40 %48 %39 %15 %12 %
Clay49 %21 %18 %47 %6 %8 %
USDA TextureClayLoamLoamClayLoamy sandLoamy sand
Reference Bulk Density1.24 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.23 g/cm³1.66 g/cm³1.62 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.27 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.27 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.19 %0.86 %0.6 %0.97 %0.41 %0.58 %
PH6.27.2888.36.8
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity38 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹68 cmol kg⁻¹51 cmol kg⁻¹109 cmol kg⁻¹64 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity24 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹28 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹7 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation91 %91 %100 %100 %100 %89 %
Total Exchangeable Bases22.7 cmol kg⁻¹16.9 cmol kg⁻¹19.8 cmol kg⁻¹22.3 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹7.4 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0.5 %11.7 %13.3 %9.1 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0.2 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %2 %3 %2 %4 %3 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.7 dS m-11 dS m-10.4 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel3 %7 %10 %3 %10 %10 %
Sand21 %41 %36 %15 %79 %79 %
Silt32 %38 %46 %40 %15 %11 %
Clay47 %21 %18 %45 %6 %10 %
USDA TextureClayLoamLoamClayLoamy sandSandy loam
Reference Bulk Density1.24 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³1.66 g/cm³1.59 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.46 g/cm³1.5 g/cm³1.44 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.55 %0.38 %0.4 %0.45 %0.17 %0.24 %
PH6.87.58.17.98.36.9
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity41 cmol kg⁻¹61 cmol kg⁻¹84 cmol kg⁻¹51 cmol kg⁻¹137 cmol kg⁻¹57 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity20 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹21 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation99 %96 %100 %100 %94 %93 %
Total Exchangeable Bases18.2 cmol kg⁻¹15.2 cmol kg⁻¹20.7 cmol kg⁻¹20.9 cmol kg⁻¹13.9 cmol kg⁻¹9 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0.2 %2.5 %12.2 %19.2 %9.9 %0.1 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0.2 %0.2 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %3 %3 %3 %4 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.5 dS m-11.9 dS m-10.4 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263