Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo

Location:Mexico
Area:353,161 acres (142,919 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cwa (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: winter dry; Temperature: hot summer)

Ecoregions

Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests
Veracruz moist forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 ABC
    
Share82 %18 %60 %40 %65 %35 %
Soil TypeLithic LeptosolsRendzic LeptosolsLithic LeptosolsCalcaric RegosolsRendzic LeptosolsLithic Leptosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumFineMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth10 cm30 cm10 cm100 cm30 cm10 cm
DrainageImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyModerately wellImperfectlyImperfectly
Available Water Capacity15 mm50 mm15 mm150 m50 mm15 mm
Topsoil Properties
Gravel28 %10 %4 %9 %10 %28 %
Sand50 %42 %40 %51 %42 %50 %
Silt26 %24 %20 %41 %24 %26 %
Clay24 %34 %40 %8 %34 %24 %
USDA TextureSandy clay loamClay loamClayLoamClay loamSandy clay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.56 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.09 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³1.1 g/cm³1.5 g/cm³1.2 g/cm³1.09 g/cm³
Organic Carbon14 %7.6 %0.3 %8.03 %7.6 %14 %
PH7.77.57.587.57.7
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity 23 cmol kg⁻¹47 cmol kg⁻¹ 23 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity44 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹20 cmol kg⁻¹18 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases44 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹20 cmol kg⁻¹18 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate3.9 %15.9 %2.6 %17.9 %15.9 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0.1 %0.1 %0.1 %0.3 %0.1 %0.1 %
Exchangeable Sodium4 %1 %1 %2 %1 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.4 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.4 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel   5 %  
Sand   37 %  
Silt   58 %  
Clay   5 %  
USDA Texture   Silt loam  
Reference Bulk Density   1.6 g/cm³  
Bulk Density   1.47 g/cm³  
Organic Carbon   3.45 %  
PH   8  
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity   6 cmol kg⁻¹  
Base Saturation   100 %  
Total Exchangeable Bases   6 cmol kg⁻¹  
Calcium Carbonate   14.1 %  
Calcium Sulphate   0.2 %  
Exchangeable Sodium   4 %  
Electrical Conductivity   1.2 dS m-1  
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263