Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve

Location:Russia
IUCN Category:IV
Area:621,951 acres (251,695 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:BSk (Climate: arid; Precipitation: steppe; Temperature: cold arid)

Ecoregions

Caspian lowland desert
Pontic steppe

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 ABCDEFG
        
Share 90 %10 %50 %50 %70 %10 %10 %10 %   
Soil TypeCambic ArenosolsCalcaric PhaeozemsMollic GleysolsHaplic SolonetzLuvic KastanozemsLuvic KastanozemsHaplic SolonetzGleyic SolonetzHaplic SolonchaksLuvic KastanozemsLuvic CalcisolsLuvic Calcisols
Topsoil TextureCoarseMediumMediumMediumFineFineMediumMediumMediumFineMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageSomewhat excessiveModerately wellPoorModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellPoorModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately well
Available Water Capacity100 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m150 m
Phase 1 SodicPhreaticSodicSodicSodicSodicSodicSalineSodicSalineSaline
Phase 2  Saline SalineSaline PhreaticPhreaticSalineSodic 
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month
Topsoil Properties
Gravel2 %3 %4 %5 %4 %4 %5 %5 %7 %4 %10 %10 %
Sand89 %35 %39 %47 %8 %8 %47 %32 %34 %8 %45 %45 %
Silt6 %43 %39 %29 %54 %54 %29 %43 %41 %54 %29 %29 %
Clay5 %22 %22 %24 %38 %38 %24 %25 %25 %38 %26 %26 %
USDA TextureSandLoamLoamLoamSilty clay loamSilty clay loamLoamLoamLoamSilty clay loamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.7 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.57 g/cm³1.46 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.54 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.54 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.44 g/cm³1.44 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.5 %1.37 %1.65 %0.7 %1.68 %1.68 %0.7 %0.7 %0.46 %1.68 %0.58 %0.58 %
PH67.96.67.66.86.87.67.67.96.88.18.1
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity40 cmol kg⁻¹67 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹46 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹46 cmol kg⁻¹54 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity3 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹36 cmol kg⁻¹36 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹36 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation99 %100 %87 %100 %94 %94 %100 %97 %100 %94 %100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases2 cmol kg⁻¹25.8 cmol kg⁻¹9.8 cmol kg⁻¹15.7 cmol kg⁻¹43.5 cmol kg⁻¹43.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.7 cmol kg⁻¹18.3 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹43.5 cmol kg⁻¹18.1 cmol kg⁻¹18.1 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %3.4 %0 %5.3 %6 %6 %5.3 %5.3 %9 %6 %9.9 %9.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %1.8 %0 %0.1 %0.1 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %2 %13 %1 %1 %13 %22 %28 %1 %9 %9 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.1 dS m-11.6 dS m-12.1 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.5 dS m-10.5 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel1 %5 %3 %5 %6 %6 %5 %3 %8 %6 %8 %8 %
Sand89 %35 %37 %40 %8 %8 %40 %24 %43 %8 %38 %38 %
Silt6 %44 %35 %29 %51 %51 %29 %41 %34 %51 %29 %29 %
Clay5 %21 %28 %31 %41 %41 %31 %35 %23 %41 %33 %33 %
USDA TextureSandLoamClay loamClay loamSilty claySilty clayClay loamClay loamLoamSilty clayClay loamClay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.7 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³1.34 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³1.34 g/cm³1.29 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.24 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.55 g/cm³1.44 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³1.56 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.56 g/cm³1.47 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.32 g/cm³1.32 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.3 %0.48 %0.69 %0.29 %0.74 %0.74 %0.29 %0.26 %0.32 %0.74 %0.3 %0.3 %
PH5.98.27.28.47.67.68.48.687.68.28.2
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity42 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹73 cmol kg⁻¹73 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹64 cmol kg⁻¹60 cmol kg⁻¹73 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity2 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹20 cmol kg⁻¹33 cmol kg⁻¹33 cmol kg⁻¹20 cmol kg⁻¹22 cmol kg⁻¹18 cmol kg⁻¹33 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation98 %100 %88 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases1.4 cmol kg⁻¹22.2 cmol kg⁻¹10.7 cmol kg⁻¹31.2 cmol kg⁻¹47.4 cmol kg⁻¹47.4 cmol kg⁻¹31.2 cmol kg⁻¹26.4 cmol kg⁻¹13.3 cmol kg⁻¹47.4 cmol kg⁻¹43.8 cmol kg⁻¹43.8 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %11.4 %4 %6 %3 %3 %6 %9 %9 %3 %15 %15 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0.1 %0 %0 %0.1 %0.1 %1 %0 %0.3 %0.3 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %2 %1 %35 %2 %2 %35 %39 %28 %2 %2 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-11.1 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.3 dS m-11.1 dS m-11.5 dS m-111.3 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.4 dS m-10.4 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263