Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve

Location:Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
IUCN Category:Ia
Area:692,723 acres (280,335 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)

Ecoregions

Caucasus mixed forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 ABCDEFG
        
Share80 %10 %10 %      
Soil TypeDystric CambisolsEutric CambisolsRendzic LeptosolsDystric CambisolsEutric CambisolsRendzic LeptosolsAlbic LuvisolsDystric LeptosolsMollic Leptosols
Topsoil TextureCoarseFineCoarseCoarseFineCoarseMediumCoarseCoarse
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm30 cm100 cm100 cm30 cm100 cm30 cm30 cm
DrainageWellModerately wellModerately wellWellModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately well
Available Water Capacity15 m50 m50 mm15 m50 m50 mm150 m15 mm15 mm
Phase 1GravellyGravelly GravellyGravelly  StonyGravelly
Phase 2       Gravelly 
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm None to 80 cmNone to 80 cm None to 80 cm  
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm None to 150 cmNone to 150 cm None to 150 cm  
Soil Water RegimeNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month Not wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month Not wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month  
Topsoil Properties
Gravel10 %10 %21 %10 %10 %21 %9 %23 %20 %
Sand75 %23 %76 %75 %23 %76 %37 %76 %74 %
Silt15 %29 %16 %15 %29 %16 %45 %14 %16 %
Clay10 %48 %8 %10 %48 %8 %18 %10 %10 %
USDA TextureSandy loamClaySandy loamSandy loamClaySandy loamLoamSandy loamSandy loam
Reference Bulk Density1.58 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.61 g/cm³1.58 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³1.61 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³1.58 g/cm³1.57 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.49 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.49 g/cm³1.28 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.47 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.7 %1.17 %1.93 %0.7 %1.17 %1.93 %0.82 %0.65 %1.04 %
PH5.16.77.25.16.77.265.16.2
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity21 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹64 cmol kg⁻¹21 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹64 cmol kg⁻¹53 cmol kg⁻¹19 cmol kg⁻¹80 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity5 cmol kg⁻¹27 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹5 cmol kg⁻¹27 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹4 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation28 %89 %86 %28 %89 %86 %75 %62 %86 %
Total Exchangeable Bases1.5 cmol kg⁻¹22.1 cmol kg⁻¹31.7 cmol kg⁻¹1.5 cmol kg⁻¹22.1 cmol kg⁻¹31.7 cmol kg⁻¹11.7 cmol kg⁻¹3.4 cmol kg⁻¹5.2 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0.1 %4.9 %0 %0.1 %4.9 %0 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium5 %1 %1 %5 %1 %1 %0 %3 %0 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel9 %24 % 9 %24 % 19 %  
Sand68 %26 % 68 %26 % 33 %  
Silt17 %29 % 17 %29 % 35 %  
Clay15 %45 % 15 %45 % 32 %  
USDA TextureSandy loamClay Sandy loamClay Clay loam  
Reference Bulk Density1.51 g/cm³1.26 g/cm³ 1.51 g/cm³1.26 g/cm³ 1.32 g/cm³  
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³ 1.5 g/cm³1.35 g/cm³ 1.58 g/cm³  
Organic Carbon0.27 %0.58 % 0.27 %0.58 % 0.38 %  
PH57 57 6.3  
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity31 cmol kg⁻¹51 cmol kg⁻¹ 31 cmol kg⁻¹51 cmol kg⁻¹ 54 cmol kg⁻¹  
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity5 cmol kg⁻¹25 cmol kg⁻¹ 5 cmol kg⁻¹25 cmol kg⁻¹ 21 cmol kg⁻¹  
Base Saturation36 %97 % 36 %97 % 84 %  
Total Exchangeable Bases1.4 cmol kg⁻¹25.9 cmol kg⁻¹ 1.4 cmol kg⁻¹25.9 cmol kg⁻¹ 19.5 cmol kg⁻¹  
Calcium Carbonate0 %0.3 % 0 %0.3 % 0 %  
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 0 %0 % 0 %  
Exchangeable Sodium5 %1 % 5 %1 % 1 %  
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 0.1 dS m-1  
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263