Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana

Location:Spain
IUCN Category:II
Area:123,801 acres (50,101 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Csa (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: summer dry; Temperature: hot summer)

Ecoregions

Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share60 %40 %60 %30 %10 %
Soil TypeLuvic ArenosolsCambic ArenosolsEutric VertisolsGleyic SolonchaksEutric Fluvisols
Topsoil TextureCoarseCoarseFineFineMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellSomewhat excessivePoorPoorPoor
Available Water Capacity100 m100 m125 m100 m150 m
Phase 1  SalineSaline 
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm40 - 80 cmNone to 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 month
Misc. Property  Vertic (cracks of more than 1 cm wide)  
Topsoil Properties
Gravel3 %2 %4 %4 %4 %
Sand90 %89 %19 %22 %39 %
Silt5 %6 %25 %26 %40 %
Clay5 %5 %56 %52 %21 %
USDA TextureSandSandClayClayLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.71 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.22 g/cm³1.23 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.57 g/cm³1.56 g/cm³1.23 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.39 %0.5 %1.05 %0.53 %0.86 %
PH5.866.98.87.2
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity35 cmol kg⁻¹40 cmol kg⁻¹70 cmol kg⁻¹39 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity3 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹43 cmol kg⁻¹29 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation76 %99 %100 %100 %91 %
Total Exchangeable Bases2 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹40.9 cmol kg⁻¹46.5 cmol kg⁻¹16.9 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0.2 %9 %0.5 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0.4 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %2 %1 %45 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-112.7 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel4 %1 %5 %6 %7 %
Sand87 %89 %18 %24 %41 %
Silt5 %6 %24 %23 %38 %
Clay8 %5 %58 %53 %21 %
USDA TextureLoamy sandSandClayClayLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.63 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.21 g/cm³1.23 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.55 g/cm³1.6 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.2 %0.3 %0.59 %0.38 %0.38 %
PH5.75.97.58.87.5
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity34 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹70 cmol kg⁻¹48 cmol kg⁻¹61 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity3 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹29 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation75 %98 %100 %100 %96 %
Total Exchangeable Bases2.3 cmol kg⁻¹1.4 cmol kg⁻¹44.2 cmol kg⁻¹55.3 cmol kg⁻¹15.2 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0.8 %9 %2.5 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0.5 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %3 %2 %42 %3 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-121.5 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263