Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai

Location:Spain
IUCN Category:V
Area:1,777 acres (719 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cfb (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)

Ecoregions

Cantabrian mixed forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share50 %30 %10 %10 %60 %20 %20 %
Soil TypeHumic CambisolsDystric CambisolsUmbric LeptosolsLithic LeptosolsHaplic LuvisolsEutric CambisolsLithic Leptosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMediumMediumMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm30 cm10 cm100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainageImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectlyImperfectly
Available Water Capacity15 m15 m15 mm0 mm15 m15 m15 mm
Phase 1GravellyGravellyGravellyGravellyStonyStonyStony
Phase 2LithicLithic  LithicLithic 
Root Obstacle40 - 60 cm20 - 40 cm  40 - 60 cm40 - 60 cm 
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm  None to 150 cmNone to 150 cm 
Soil Water RegimeWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 month  Not wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 month 
Topsoil Properties
Gravel8 %10 %6 %21 %4 %9 %21 %
Sand41 %42 %49 %42 %41 %42 %42 %
Silt36 %38 %31 %34 %37 %36 %34 %
Clay23 %20 %20 %24 %22 %22 %24 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoamLoamLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.1 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.1 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.37 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon2.72 %1.45 %2.4 %1.61 %0.74 %1 %1.61 %
PH5.35.15.17.56.56.67.5
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity52 cmol kg⁻¹32 cmol kg⁻¹34 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹47 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity21 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹12 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹13 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation25 %38 %36 %100 %91 %93 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases5.4 cmol kg⁻¹4.3 cmol kg⁻¹4.7 cmol kg⁻¹15.5 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹15.5 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %3.9 %0 %0 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %2 %4 %3 %1 %2 %3 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel6 %19 %  3 %12 % 
Sand44 %45 %  37 %41 % 
Silt32 %35 %  34 %34 % 
Clay24 %20 %  29 %25 % 
USDA TextureLoamLoam  Clay loamLoam 
Reference Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³  1.35 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.16 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³  1.51 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon1.07 %0.5 %  0.36 %0.37 % 
PH5.35.2  6.77 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity37 cmol kg⁻¹35 cmol kg⁻¹  50 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity14 cmol kg⁻¹9 cmol kg⁻¹  14 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation30 %33 %  93 %93 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases2.5 cmol kg⁻¹2.6 cmol kg⁻¹  13.1 cmol kg⁻¹15.1 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %  0 %0.1 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %  0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium2 %2 %  1 %2 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1  0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263