Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fagales > Fagaceae > Quercus > Quercus robur

Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak)

Synonyms: Quercus longaeva; Quercus robur subsp. eurobur; Quercus robur subsp. longipeduncula; Quercus robur var. typica; Quercus robur var. vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Quercus robur, commonly known as the pedunculate oak is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family Fagaceae. It is native to most of Europe west of the Caucasus. The tree is widely cultivated in temperate regions and has escaped into the wild in scattered parts of China and North America.
View Wikipedia Record: Quercus robur



Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Shade Percentage [1]  79 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Dispersal Mode [6]  Hoarding, Autochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Janka Hardness [3]  1120 lbf (508 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [7]  0.575
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth; The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator; This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost; The bark is very rich in calcium; Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff; A black dye and an excellent long-lasting ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron; The colour is not very durable; When mixed with alum, the dye is brown and with salts of tin it is yellow; Trees can be coppiced to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc; The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin; Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves; On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains11.6% tannin and the wood 9.2%; The bark strips easily from the wood in April and May; A purplish dye is obtained from an infusion of the bark with a small quantity of copperas; It is not bright, but is said to be durable; Wood - hard, tough, durable even under water - highly valued for furniture, construction etc; It is also a good fuel;
Height [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
View Plants For A Future Record : Quercus robur

Protected Areas


Emblem of






Europe to Iran;

External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
7Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
8Ecology of Commanster
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
14Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
15Diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India, G. Mustafa Shah, Ulfat Jan, Bilal A. Bhat & Fayaz A. Ahangar, Journal of Threatened Taxa | July 2009 | 1(7): 398-400
16Influences of the feeding ecology on body mass and possible implications for reproduction in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), Joanna Fietz, M. Pflug, W. Schlund, F. Tataruch, J Comp Physiol B (2005) 175: 45–55
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Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License