Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Bufonidae > Incilius > Incilius alvarius

Incilius alvarius (Colorado River Toad)

Synonyms: Bufo alvarius; Cranopsis alvaria; Ollotis alvaria; Phrynoidis alvarius

Wikipedia Abstract

The Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius), also known as the Sonoran Desert toad, is a psychoactive toad found in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. Its toxin, as an exudate of glands within the skin, contains 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin.
View Wikipedia Record: Incilius alvarius

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.29
EDGE Score: 1.67


Adult Weight [1]  237.7 grams
Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Litter Size [2]  7,750
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  15 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [1]  6 inches (16.5 cm)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Saguaro National Park II 11686 Arizona, United States
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No


Atelerix albiventris (Four-toed Hedgehog)[3]
Hemiechinus auritus (Long-eared Hedgehog)[3]
Hypsiglena torquata (Night Snake)[4]


Parasitized by 
Aplectana itzocanensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Nematotaenia dispar <Unverified Name>[5]
Oswaldocruzia pipiens <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdias americanus <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Middle America; North America;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Oliveira, Brunno Freire; São-Pedro, Vinícius Avelar; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Penone, Caterina; C. Costa, Gabriel. (2017) AmphiBIO, a global database for amphibian ecological traits. Sci. Data.
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
4Feeding ecology of the Desert Nightsnake, Hypsiglena torquata (Colubridae), Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Harry W. Greene, Copeia, 1999(1), pp. 93-100
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License