Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Rosales > Rosaceae > Malus > Malus pumila

Malus pumila (Common apple)


Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Malus pumila


Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  85 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [2]  All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Specific Gravity [4]  0.646
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  Used as a rootstock for the cultivated apples, there are several named varieties; A yellow dye is obtained from the bark;
Height [2]  23 feet (7 m)
Width [1]  25 feet (7.6 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
View Plants For A Future Record : Malus pumila

Protected Areas

Emblem of





External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
5HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
6New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
7Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Jamba Gyeltshen and Amanda Hodges, University of Florida
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Neotoma magister, Steven B. Castleberry, Michael T. Mengak, and W. Mark Ford, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 789, pp. 1-5 (2006)