Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Abies > Abies fraseri

Abies fraseri (Fraser fir; Southern fir; Southern balsam fir; She-balsam; Fraser's fir; Fraser balsam fir)

Language: Fre; Ger; Hun; Ita

Wikipedia Abstract

The Fraser fir, Abies fraseri, is a species of fir native to the Appalachian Mountains of the Southeastern United States. Abies fraseri is closely related to balsam fir (Abies balsamea), of which it has occasionally been treated as a subspecies (as A. balsamea subsp. fraseri (Pursh) E.Murray) or a variety (as A. balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach).
View Wikipedia Record: Abies fraseri

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Abies fraseri


Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Hazards [3]  The oleoresin (Canada balsam) can cause dermatitis in some people;
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  6 inches (15 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  60800 / lb (134041 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [4]  0.38
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  Wood - light, soft, coarse grained, not strong; It is occasionally manufactured into lumber; The following uses are for the closely related A. balsamea. Since this species also has blisters of resin in the bark[81], the uses quite probably also apply here. The balsamic resin 'Balm of Gilead';. Another report says that it is a turpentine; It is used medicinally, also in the manufacture of glues, candles and as a cement for microscopes and slides - it has a high refractive index resembling that of glass; The average yield is about 8 - 10 oz per tree; The resin is also a fixative in soaps and perfumery; Leaves are a stuffing material for pillows etc - they impart a pleasant scent[46, 61] and also repel moths[169]
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
Flower Color [2]  Purple
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [1]  17 feet (5.3 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Low
View Plants For A Future Record : Abies fraseri

Protected Areas



Parasitized by 
Chrysobothris pusilla[7]
Pyrularia pubera (buffalo nut)[7]

Range Map


U.S.A.: W. North Carolina, E. Tennessee, SW. Virginia (Appalachian Mts.) TDWG: 78 NCA TEN VRG; USA: W North Carolina, E Tennessee, SW Virginia (Appalachian Mts.). TDWG: 78 NCA TEN VRG;

External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License