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Juniperus communis (Common Juniper)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. It has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a circumpolar distribution throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. Relict populations can be found in the Atlas Mountains of Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Juniperus communis

Infraspecies

Attributes

Bloom Period [1]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [5]  Autochory, Endozoochory
Drought Tolerance [1]  High
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  Low
Flower Type [2]  Dioecious
Frost Free Days [1]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Fall
Growth Form [1]  Single Stem
Growth Period [1]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [1]  Slow
Hazards [2]  Although the fruit of this plant is quite often used medicinally and as a flavouring in various foods and drinks, large doses of the fruit can cause renal damage. Juniper should not be used internally in any quantities by pregnant women;
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Propagation [1]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [1]  14 inches (36 cm)
Scent [2]  All parts of the plant are very fragrant.
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Slow
Seed Vigor [1]  Low
Seeds Per [1]  40363 / lb (88985 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Semi-Erect
Specific Gravity [6]  0.517
Structure [2]  Shrub
Usage [2]  A decoction of the branches is used as an anti-dandruff shampoo; The essential oil distilled from the fruits is used in perfumes with spicy fragrances; In hot countries the tree yields the resin 'Sandarac' from incisions in the trunk; This is used in the production of a white varnish; The stems were at one time used as a strewing herb to sweeten the smell of rooms; The whole plant can be burnt as an incense and fumigant; It was used during epidemics in the belief that it would purify the air and cleanse it of infection; Fresh or dried juniper branches also make a good insect repellent; Many forms of this species are good ground cover plants for sunny situations; Forms to try include 'Depressa Aurea', 'Dumosa', 'Effusa', and 'Repanda'; 'Prostrata' can also be used; The bark is used as cordage; Wood - strong, hard, fragrant, very durable in contact with the soil and very close-grained, but usually too small to be of much use; It makes an excellent fuel;
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  None
Flower Color [1]  Yellow
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  Blue
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Height [2]  30 feet (9 m)
Width [2]  13.12 feet (4 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [1]  Dense
Screening - Winter [1]  Dense
View Plants For A Future Record : Juniperus communis

Protected Areas

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Ecosystems

Predators

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Leucocortinarius bulbiger (White Webcap)[11]
Parasitized by 
Didymascella tetraspora[11]
Gymnosporangium cornutum[11]
Seynesiella juniperi[11]

Range Map

Distribution

Temperate Eurasia, North America N of Mexico. Juniperus communis is the most widely distributed conifer species in the world, with a circumpolar distribution extending from ca. 70° N in Alaska, Scandinavia and Siberia to ca. 28° N in the Himalaya. Comprehensive area maps are given in Hegi's Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Zoller, 1981) and Hultén & Fries (1986). Zoller presents an inclusive outline map of the species; Hultén & Fries map six varieties separately, one of these is not here recognised (var. hemisphaerica in the Mediterranean and W Asia). Both maps show some scattered dots in central China, but the species is not recorded in Flora of China (Fu & al., 1999). In this study, it has been found to occur in border mountains of Xinjiang in NW China and in Jilin in NE China. The subalpine form, var. saxatilis (var. montana in Hultén & Fries, 1986, subsp. nana in Flora of Alaska, Hultén, 1968) does extend into the W Himalaya but not (far) into Xizang (Tibet). Confusion with J. pingii and J. squamata is the likely source of these errors. This variety has the widest distribution, in Eurasia it is almost coincident with the species as a whole. In the colder parts of the boreal forest zone and in the subarctic and arctic tundras it occurs in lowlands as well as mountains and only in lower latitudes does it retreat to similar climatic zones in mountain systems, with the W Himalaya as its most southern outlier. Juniperus communis var. communis extends from Spain eastward accross Europe to central Siberia and is essentially a lowland form reaching higher altitudes only along its southern fringe in the Mediterranean, the Caucasus and Elburz mountains. It is more polymorphic than var. saxatilis as it occurs in more diverse habitats. Distribution patterns are still only vaguely outlined in NE Asia, but it seems that var. nipponica is indeed geographically separated, occurring only in Japan and the southern Kuriles. In North America three varieties occur (Flora of North America, Adams, 1993). Hultén & Fries (1986) map J. communis var. montana (= var. saxatilis) across Canada, Alaska and the Rocky Mountains, but in Flora of North America most of that range is instead assigned to var. depressa, with var. montana restricted to S Greenland and from British Columbia in Canada south to California. However, it does occur in coastal Alaska. Sometimes the distinction between the two varieties is difficult to make out in herbarium specimens. The W American populations of var. saxatilis are then quite disjunct from the E Asian ones as nearly all of the dots in Flora of Alaska (Hultén, 1968) should be assigned to var. depressa. This variety reaches its southernmost limits in N Georgia and W Texas. The much more restricted var. megistocarpa appears to be limited to the maritime region of E Canada. TDWG: 10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI BGM-BE BGM-LU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN NET POL SWI 12 BAL COR FRA-CI FRA-FR POR SAR SPA-AN SPA-GI SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT KRI ROM SIC-SI TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BL; Temperate Eurasia, North America N of Mexico. Juniperus communis is the most widely distributed conifer species in the world, with a circumpolar distribution extending from ca. 70º N in Alaska, Scandinavia and Siberia to ca. 28º N in the Himalaya. Comprehensive area maps are given in Hegi's Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Zoller, 1981) and Hultén & Fries (1986). Zoller presents an inclusive outline map of the species; Hultén & Fries map six varieties separately, one of these is not here recognised (var. hemisphaerica in the Mediterranean and W Asia). Both maps show some scattered dots in central China, but the species is not recorded in Flora of China (Fu & al., 1999). In this study, it has been found to occur in border mountains of Xinjiang in NW China and in Jilin in NE China. The subalpine form, var. saxatilis (var. montana in Hultén & Fries, 1986, subsp. nana in Flora of Alaska, Hultén, 1968) does extend into the W Himalaya but not (far) into Xizang (Tibet). Confusion with J. pingii and J. squamata is the likely source of these errors. This variety has the widest distribution, in Eurasia it is almost coincident with the species as a whole. In the colder parts of the boreal forest zone and in the subarctic and arctic tundras it occurs in lowlands as well as mountains and only in lower latitudes does it retreat to similar climatic zones in mountain systems, with the W Himalaya as its most southern outlier. Juniperus communis var. communis extends from Spain eastward accross Europe to central Siberia and is essentially a lowland form reaching higher altitudes only along its southern fringe in the Mediterranean, the Caucasus and Elburz mountains. It is more polymorphic than var. saxatilis as it occurs in more diverse habitats. Distribution patterns are still only vaguely outlined in NE Asia, but it seems that var. nipponica is indeed geographically separated, occurring only in Japan and the southern Kuriles. In North America three varieties occur (Flora of North America, Adams, 1993). Hultén & Fries (1986) map J. communis var. montana (= var. saxatilis) across Canada, Alaska and the Rocky Mountains, but in Flora of North America most of that range is instead assigned to var. depressa, with var. montana restricted to S Greenland and from British Columbia in Canada south to California. However, it does occur in coastal Alaska. Sometimes the distinction between the two varieties is difficult to make out in herbarium specimens. The W American populations of var. saxatilis are then quite disjunct from the E Asian ones as nearly all of the dots in Flora of Alaska (Hultén, 1968) should be assigned to var. depressa. This variety reaches its southernmost limits in N Georgia and W Texas. The much more restricted var. megistocarpa appears to be limited to the maritime region of E Canada.. TDWG: 10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI BGM-BE BGM-LU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN NET POL SWI 12 BAL COR FRA-CI FRA-FR POR SAR SPA-AN SPA-GI SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT KRI ROM SIC-SI TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-KA BLT-LA BLT-LI KRY RUC RUE RUN RUS RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK 30 ALT BRY CTA IRK KRA TVA WSB YAK 31 AMU KAM KHA KUR MAG PRM SAK 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 NCS TCS 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN IRQ LBS-LB LBS-SY TUR 36 CHI-NM CHM CHX 37 MON 38 JAP-HK JAP-HN KOR-NK KOR-SK 40 NEP PAK WHM-HP WHM-JK WHM-UT 70 ASK GNL NUN NWT YUK 71 ABT BRC MAN SAS 72 LAB NBR NFL-NE NFL-SP NSC ONT PEI QUE 73 COL IDA MNT ORE WAS WYO 74 ILL IOW KAN MIN MSO NDA NEB OKL SDA WIS 75 CNT INI MAI MAS MIC NWH NWJ NWY OHI PEN RHO VER WVA 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM 78 GEO KTY NCA SCA TEN VRG;

External References

USDA Plant Profile

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Ecology of Commanster
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
14Geographical ecology and variation of plant-seed disperser interactions: southern Spanish junipers and frugivorous thrushes, Pedro Jordano, Vegetatio 107/108: 85-104, 1993.
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License