Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus edulis
 

Pinus edulis (Colorado pinyon; Two-needle pinyon pine; twoneedle pinyon; Pinyon pine; Pinyon; Rocky Mountain nut pine; Two-leaf pinyon)

Synonyms: Caryopitys edulis; Pinus cembroides subsp. edulis; Pinus cembroides var. edulis; Pinus monophylla var. edulis
Language: Chi; Fre; Hun; Rus; Spa

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus edulis, the Colorado pinyon, two-needle pinyon, or piñon pine, is a pine in the pinyon pine group whose ancestor was a member of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora (a group of drought resistant trees) and is native to the United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus edulis

Attributes

Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Bloom Period [2]  Early Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  6 months 20 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  860 lbf (390 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  2333 / lb (5143 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.57
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; This species yields a resin, but it is not commercially important. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The gum (this almost certainly means the resin; It has also been used as a red paint on jars and bowls; For waterproofing containers, the gum was melted and poured inside the container. The container was then turned round to ensure the gum came into contact with all parts of the inside. More gum would then be applied to the outside; The resin has been used as a glue for fixing turquoise in jewellery; The gum has been used, with sumac leaves (Rhus spp) and yellow ochre to make a black dye and ink; The sumac leaves are boiled until there is a strong mixture. Whilst the sumac was boiling, the ochre was powdered and roasted. The gum was then added to the ochre and the whole roasted again. As the roasting proceeded, the gum melted and finally the mixture was reduced to a black powder. This was then cooled and thrown into the sumac mixture, forming a rich blue-black fluid that was essentially an ink; Wood - light, soft, not strong, brittle. Used for fuel, fencing etc; A charcoal made from the wood is used in smelting; The wood makes a good fuel, burning with few sparks being thrown out;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.2 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Low
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus edulis

Protected Areas

Emblem of

New Mexico

Predators

Range Map

Distribution

SW USA: Arizona, S California, Colorado, New Mexico, W Oklahoma, NW Texas, Utah, S Wyoming.. TDWG: 73 COL WYO 74 OKL 76 ARI CAL UTA 77 NWM TEX; SW. U.S.A., Arizona, S. California, Colorado, New Mexico, W. Oklahoma, NW. Texas, Utah, S. Wyoming TDWG: 73 COL WYO 74 OKL 76 ARI CAL UTA 77 NWM TEX;

External References

USDA Plant Profile

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
7Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Spermophilus variegatus, Emily C. Oaks, Paul J. Young, Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., and David F. Schmidt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 272, pp. 1-8 (1987)
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Food Habits of Rodents Inhabiting Arid and Semi-arid Ecosystems of Central New Mexico, ANDREW G. HOPE AND ROBERT R. PARMENTER, Special Publication of the Museum of Southwestern Biology, NUMBER 9, pp. 1–75 (2007)
13DIET AND TREE USE OF ABERT’S SQUIRRELS (SCIURUS ABERTI) IN A MIXED-CONIFER FOREST, ANDREW J. EDELMAN AND JOHN L. KOPROWSKI, THE SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 50(4):461–465 DECEMBER 2005
14Tamias cinereicollis, Clayton D. Hilton and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 436, pp. 1-5 (1993)
15Tamias panamintinus, Troy L. Best, Robin G. Clawson, and Joseph A. Clawson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 468, pp. 1-7 (1994)
16Tamias rufus, Stephanie L. Burt and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 460, pp. 1-6 (1994)
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License