Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Picea > Picea abies

Picea abies (Norway spruce; Common spruce)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Pol; Por; Rus; Slo; Spa; Swe

Wikipedia Abstract

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It has branchlets that typically hang downwards, and the largest cones of any spruce, 9–17 cm (3 1⁄2–6 3⁄4 in) long. It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains, and with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is widely planted for its wood, and is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world. It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced, and one clone has been measured as 9,550 years old.
View Wikipedia Record: Picea abies



Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Janka Hardness [4]  420 lbf (191 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  28 inches (71 cm)
Scent [3]  The bruised leaves emit a delicious musky smell;
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  64000 / lb (141096 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Climbing
Specific Gravity [7]  0.39
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The tree is a source of pitch (Burgundy pitch) and turpentine (Jura turpentine); Burgundy pitch is used as a varnish and in medicinal plasters; It is a strong adhesive; The turpentine is a waterproofer and wood preservative. They are obtained by incisions in the trunk, the resin is scraped out some months later; An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery; The seed contains 30% of a fatty oil, this is used in the production of a varnish; The bark contains some tannin; Both the bark and bark extract have been widely used in Europe as a source of tannin, the bark containing up to 13% tannin; Yields of tannin have been doubled by heating or steaming the bark as soon as possible after the tree has been felled; A fairly wind resistant tree and fast growing, it can be planted in shelterbelts to provide protection from the wind; The dwarf cultivar 'Inversa' can be grown as a ground cover plant in a sunny position; The cultivars 'Reflexa' and 'Procumbens' can also be used; They are best spaced about 1 metre apart each way; Wood - medium hard, fairly elastic, durable under water, light in weight and colour. Used for general carpentry, joinery, musical instruments etc. Valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Height [3]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
View Plants For A Future Record : Picea abies

Protected Areas





Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Central (on mountains), N and E Europe, eastward to the Ural Mts., where the species merges with P. obovata. TDWG: 10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ROM TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-LA BLT-LI RUG RUE RUN RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK; Central (on mountains), North and East Europe, eastward to the Ural Mts., where the species merges with P. obovata TDWG: 10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ROM TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-LA BLT-LI RUG RUE RUN RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK;

External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
8Ecology of Commanster
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
13Influences of the feeding ecology on body mass and possible implications for reproduction in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), Joanna Fietz, M. Pflug, W. Schlund, F. Tataruch, J Comp Physiol B (2005) 175: 45–55
14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
15del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Chippewa Nature Center
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License