Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Merlangius > Merlangius merlangus

Merlangius merlangus (Whiting; Spelding; North Sea whiting; Golden cutlet; European whiting; English whiting)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Merlangius merlangus, commonly known as whiting or merling, is an important food fish in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the northern Mediterranean, western Baltic, and Black Seas. In English-speaking countries outside the whiting's natural range, the name has been applied to various other species of fish.
View Wikipedia Record: Merlangius merlangus


Adult Weight [1]  3.748 lbs (1.70 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap



Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Deropristis inflata[4]
Gymnophallus choledochus[4]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center


Aegean Sea; Albania; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Croatia; Denmark; England and Wales (UK); Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Netherlands; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: southeastern Barents Sea and Iceland to Portugal, also in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and adjacent areas. Rare in the northwestern Mediterranean.; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Sea of Marmara; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004
6Abundance-depth relationship, condition factor and adaptive value of zooplanktophagy for red bandfish, Cepola macrophthalma, K. I. Stergiou, Journal of Fish Biology (1993) 42, 645-660
7The mysid-feeding guild of demersal fishes in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde estuary, K. Hostens and J. Mees, Journal of Fish Biology (1999) 55, 704-719
8The diet of demersal and semi-pelagic fish in the Thorntonbank wind farm: tracing changes using stomach analyses data, J. Derweduwen, S. Vandendriessche, T. Willems & K. Hostens, Offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea, Degraer, S., Brabant, R. & Rumes, B., (Eds.) (2012). Offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Heading for an understanding of environmental impacts. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models, Marine ecosystem management unit. 155 pp. + annexes.
9Distribution and feeding ecology of Raja radiata in the northeastern North Sea and Skagerrak (Norwegian Deep), J. E. Skjæraasen, and O. A. Bergstad, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 1249–1260. 2000
10Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002, G.J. Pierce, M.B. Santos, R.J. Reid, I.A.P. Patterson and H.M. Ross, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. (2004), 84, 1241-1244
11Seasonal distribution of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) in UK waters with new information on diet and habitat use, Sarah J. Canning, M. Begoña Santos, Robert J. Reid, Peter G.H. Evans, Richard C. Sabin, Nick Bailey and Graham J. Pierce, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2008, 88(6), 1159–1166
12Diets of adult and chick Herring Gulls Larus argentatus argenteus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland., M. Nogales, B. Zonfrillo and P. Monaghan, SEABIRD 17: 56-63
13CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
14The harbour seal Phoca vitulina as a predator in the Skagerrak. Haerkoenen, T | Heide-Joergensen, M-P, Ophelia. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191-207 1991
15THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390
16Yick, Jonah L., Adam Barnett, and Sean R. Tracey. "The trophic ecology of two abundant mesopredators in south-east coastal waters of Tasmania, Australia." Marine Biology 159.6 (2012): 1183+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014.
17Seasonal and geographical variations in the diet of Common Guillemots Uria aalge off western Scotland, D J Halley, N. Harrison, A. Webb and D.R. Thompson, SEABIRD 17: 12-20
18Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License