Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cypriniformes > Cyprinidae > Carassius > Carassius auratus

Carassius auratus (Goldfish)


Wikipedia Abstract

Carassius auratus grandoculis (Japanese: nigoro-buna), a freshwater ray-finned fish, is a wild subspecies of goldfish endemic to Japan; its habitat is limited to Lake Biwa, its tributaries and distributaries, and irrigation canals. In some literature, it is misleadingly referred to as a "crucian carp," which is not strictly incorrect since this common name is popularly applied to the whole genus Carassius, in addition to being applied to the type species, C. carassius. However, the term "crucian carp" is not applied to C. auratus grandoculis, as it is a subspecies of goldfish, C. auratus.
View Wikipedia Record: Carassius auratus

Invasive Species

Native to Asia, goldfish (Carassius auratus) have been introduced worldwide due to their popularity as pond and aquarium fish. Releases, both intentional and unintentional, have meant that this species has formed wild populations in many new locations. Concerns have been raised about the impacts that goldfish have on the aquatic community, including increasing turbidity, predation upon native fish, and helping to facilitate algal blooms.
View ISSG Record: Carassius auratus


Adult Length [2]  23 inches (59 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Phytophils
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Litter Size [2]  400,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  41 years
Migration [3]  Potamodromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months


Protected Areas

Prey / Diet

Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]



Institutions (Zoos, etc.)


Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; Albegna; America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Amudar'ya; Argentina; Asia - Inland waters; Asia: central Asia and China, and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Australia; Australian; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bolivia; Bosten Lake; Brazil; Canada; Caspian Sea; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Erqishi River; Estonia; Ethiopia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Fiora; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Han; Hawaii (USA); Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kabul; Kazakhstan; Kizilirmak; Korea, Republic of; Kum; Laguna de Bay; Lake Biwa; Lao People's Dem. Rep.; Latvia; Lithuania; Macau; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mekong; Mexico; Mississippi; Missouri; Moldova, Republic of; Murray-Darling; Myanmar; Nakdong; Namibia; Nearctic; Neotropical; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Norway; Oceania - Inland waters; Ombrone; Oriental; Pakistan; Palearctic; Peng-hu Island; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Serbia and Montenegro; Seychelles; Singapore; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Sumjin; Sweden; Switzerland; Taal Lake; Taiwan; Tarim; Thailand; Tigris; Turkey; US Virgin Islands; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Volga; Yangtze; Yili River; Youngsan; Zambezi; Zimbabwe;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Relationship between turbidity and fish diets in Lakes Waahi and Whangape, New Zealand, John W. Hayes & Martin J. Rutledge, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 25:3, 297-304
6Oriental Stork, BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
7Biology and Diet of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster Breeding in Northern Inland New South Wales, S.J.S. DEBUS, AUSTRALIAN FIELD ORNITHOLOGY 2008, 25, 165–193
8del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
9"Breeding Behaviour and Ecology of the Australian Pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, in New South Wales.", WJM Vestjens, Australian Wildlife Research 4(1) 37 - 58 (1977)
10Li, W., Zhang, T., Ye, S., Liu, J. and Li, Z. (2012), Feeding habits and predator-prey size relationships of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) in a shallow lake, central China. Journal of Applied Ichthyology
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License