Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Merlucciidae > Merluccius > Merluccius productus
 

Merluccius productus (Whiting; Pacific hake; North Pacific hake)

Synonyms: Homalopomus trowbridgii; Merlangus productus
Language: Alutiiq; Danish; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Portuguese; Russian; Salish; Spanish; Swedish; Tsimshian; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The North Pacific hake, Pacific hake, Pacific whiting, or jack salmon (Merluccius productus) is a ray-finned fish in the genus Merluccius, found in the northeast Pacific Ocean from northern Vancouver Island to the northern part of the Gulf of California. It is a silver-gray fish with black speckling, growing to a length of 90 cm (3 ft). It is a migratory offshore fish and undergoes a daily vertical migration from the surface to the seabed at depths down to about 1,000 m (3,300 ft). It is the object of an important commercial fishery off the West Coast of the United States, and annual quotas are used to prevent overfishing. An expansion of the range of the Humboldt squid is causing concern because it is a voracious predator of the North Pacific hake.
View Wikipedia Record: Merluccius productus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.444 lbs (655 g)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  15 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Predators

Consumers

Distribution

Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; Eastern Pacific: northern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern part of the Gulf of California. A record from the Gulf of Alaska is doubtful.; Gulf of Alaska; Mexico; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; USA (contiguous states);

External References

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
4Trophic Role of the Pacific Whiting, Merluccius productus, P. A. LIVINGSTON and K. M. BAILEY, Marine Fisheries Review 47(2), 1985, p. 16-22
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
7FEEDING HABITS OF THE BIGEYE THRESHER SHARK (ALOPIAS SUPERCILIOSUS) SAMPLED FROM THE CALIFORNIA-BASED DRIFT GILLNET FISHERY, ANTONELLA PRETI, SUZANNE KOHIN, HEIDI DEWAR, AND DARLENE RAMON, CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 49, 2008, pp. 202-211
8FEEDING HABITS OF THE COMMON THRESHER SHARK (ALOPIAS VULPINUS) SAMPLED FROM THE CALIFORNIA-BASED DRIFT GILL NET FISHERY, 1998-1999, ANTONELLA PRETI, SUSAN E. SMITH AND DARLENE A. RAMON, CalCOFl Rep., Vol. 42, 2001
9Laidig, T. E., P. B. Adams, and W. M. Samiere. 1997. Feeding habits of sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, off the coast of Oregon and California, In M. Saunders and M. Wilkins (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Sablefish. pp 65-79. NOAA Tech. Rep. 130.
10TROPHIC INTERACTIONS OF BATHYRAJA TRACHURA AND SYMPATRIC FISHES, Mariah Dawson Boyle, Masters Thesis, California State University Monterey Bay, 2010
11Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
12Habitat Partitioning by Three Species of Dolphins in Santa Monica Bay, California, Maddalena Bearzi, Coastal Environmental Quality Initiative, 07-08-2003
13PREDATORY INTERACTIONS AND NICHE OVERLAP BETWEEN MAKO SHARK, ISURUS OXYRINCHUS, AND JUMBO SQUID, DOSIDICUS GIGAS, IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT, RUSS VETTER, SUZANNE KOHIN, ANTONELLA PRETI, SAM MCCLATCHIE AND HEIDI DEWAR, CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 49, 2008
14Food habits and energy values of prey of striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, off the coast of Mexico, Leonardo A. Abitia-Cardenas, Felipe Galvan-Magaña, Jesus Rodriguez-Romero, Fishery Bulletin 95(2). 1997, p. 360-368
15Occurrence, photo-identification and prey of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens) in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada 1984-1998, Alexandra Morton, Marine Mammal Science Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80-93. Jan 2000
16Lissodelphis borealis, Thomas A. Jefferson and Michael W. Newcomer, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 425, pp. 1-6 (1993)
17Mirounga angustirostris, Brent S. Stewart and Harriet R. Huber, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 449, pp. 1-10 (1993)
18Tinus, Craig A. (2012) Prey preference of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a top marine predator: implications for ecosystem-based fisheries management. Fishery Bulletin, 110(2), pp. 193-204.
19Food habits of the longnose skate, Raja rhina (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880), in central California waters, Heather J. Robinson, Gregor M. Cailliet, David A. Ebert, Environ Biol Fish (2007) 80:165–179
20Seasonal and Annual Variability in the Diet of California Sea Lions Zalophus californianus at San Nicolas Island, California, 1981 -86, Mark S. Lowry, Brent S. Stewart, Carolyn B. Heath, Pamela K. Yochem, John M. Francis, Fishery Bulletin. U.S. 89:331-336 (1991)
21Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License