Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Sparidae > Lithognathus > Lithognathus lithognathus

Lithognathus lithognathus (Whitefish; White steenbras; Pignose grunter)

Synonyms: Lithognathus capensis; Lithognatus lithognathus; Pagellus capensis; Pagellus lithognathus; Pagrus lithognathus
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Wikipedia Abstract

The white steenbras (Lithognathus lithognathus) is a species of fish in the Sparidae family endemic to South Africa. Due to overfishing, primarily by seine netting operations in False Bay, the white steenbras is now critically endangered and is about to become a 'no keep' species in South Africa. Massive breeding shoals are illegally wiped out by beach seine netters each year, with the authorities doing little to prevent this. The species was identified as a priority for research, management and conservation in a National Linefish Status Report
View Wikipedia Record: Lithognathus lithognathus

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Lithognathus lithognathus


Migration [1]  Amphidromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Parasitized by 
Cainocreadium epinepheli[3]
Erilepturus hamati[3]


Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Southeast; Benguela Current; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean, Western; Mozambique; Namibia; South Africa; Southeast Atlantic: known only from the Orange River mouth to Natal, South Africa.;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2The Fish Community of the Swartvlei Estuary and the Influence of Food Availability on Resource Utilization, ALAN K. WHITFIELD, Estuaries Vol. 11, No. 3, p. 160-170 September 1988
3Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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