Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Sardina > Sardina pilchardus

Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard; European sardine; Pilchard; Sardine; True sardine; Soused pilchards; Fair maid)

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Wikipedia Abstract

European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) is a species of ray-finned fish in the monotypic genus Sardina.Littoral species. Forms schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawns in batches, in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm.
View Wikipedia Record: Sardina pilchardus


Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap




Aegean Sea; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; Algeria; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Belgium; Black Sea; Bulgaria; Canary Current; Canary Islands; Cantabrian Sea; Cape Verde; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Channel Islands; Denmark; Egypt; England and Wales (UK); Europe - Inland waters; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madeira Islands; Malta; Mauritania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Mediterranean (common in the western part and in Adriatic Sea, rare in the eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.; Northern Ireland; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Scotland (UK); Sea of Marmara; Senegal; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tagus; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Western Sahara;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4A Preliminary Study on the Feeding Regime of European Pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum 1792) in Izmir Bay, Turkey, Eastern Aegean Sea, T.M. Sever, B. Bayhan and E. Taskavak, NAGA, WorldFish Center Quarterly Vol. 28 No. 3 & 4 Jul-Dec 2005, p. 41-48
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Diet of common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, off the Portuguese continental coast, M.A. Silva, J. Mar. Biol. Ast. U.K. (1999), 79, 531-540
8BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK, HEXANCHUS GRISEUS (BONNATERRE, 1788), IN THE EASTERN NORTH SICILIAN WATERS, Antonio Celona, Alessandro De Maddalena, Teresa Romeo, Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 56 (2005) p. 137-151
9Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, SANTI MAÑOSA, DANIEL ORO and XAVIER RUIZ, SCI. MAR., 68 (4): 605-614 (2004)
10CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
11Diet comparison of four ray species (Raja clavata, Raja brachyura, Raja montagui and Leucoraja naevus) caught along the Portuguese continental shelf, Inês Farias, Ivone Figueiredo, Teresa Moura, Leonel Serrano Gordo, Ana Neves and Bárbara Serra-Pereira, Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 105–114 (2006)
12Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
14INTERANNUAL CHANGES IN THE DIET OF THE ALMACO JACK, SERIOLA RIVOLIANA (PERCIFORMES: CARANGIDAE) FROM THE AZORES, João Pedro Barreiros; Telmo Morato; Ricardo Serrão Santos e Alfredo Emílio de Borba, Cybium 2003, 27(1): 37-40
15Diet of Atlantic lizardfish, Synodus saurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Synodontidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Luca Castriota, Maria Grazia Finoia, Gianfranco Scotti and Franco Andaloro, Scientia Marina 73(2) June 2009, 369-376
16Feeding habits of the albacore tuna Thunnus alalunga (Perciformes, Scombridae) from central Mediterranean Sea, P. Consoli, T. Romeo, P. Battaglia, L. Castriota, V. Esposito, F. Andaloro, Mar Biol (2008) 155:113–120
17Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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