Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Pholidae > Pholis > Pholis gunnellus

Pholis gunnellus (Tissy; Tansy; Salt-water snake; Rock gunnel; Gunnel; Crinkly dick; Butter-fish; Butterfish; Nine-eyes)

Language: Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Icelandic; Latvian; Lithuanian; Manx; Norwegian; Polish; Russian; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The rock gunnel or Butterfish(Pholis gunnellus) is an eel-like fish found in the intertidal and subtidal zones of the North Atlantic. It is one of two species of gunnel native to the Atlantic Ocean, the other being the banded gunnel. The rock gunnel is capable of remaining above the waterline at low tide and breathing air.
View Wikipedia Record: Pholis gunnellus


Maximum Longevity [1]  5 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern British Isles Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agonus cataphractus (Pogge)1
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)1
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)1



Mutual (symbiont) 
Gymnophallus choledochus[2]
Levinseniella brachysoma[2]
Maritrema subdolum[2]
Profilicollis botulus[2]
Sacculina carcini[2]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)


Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Baltic Sea; Beaufort Sea; Belgium; Canada; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Denmark; East Siberian Sea; Estonia; Faroe Plateau; Finland; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greenland; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Laptev Sea; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).; North Sea; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Penobscot Bay; Poland; Russian Federation; Scotian Shelf; Sweden; Tagus; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
3Pinnegar, J.K. and Platts, M. (2011). DAPSTOM - An Integrated Database & Portal for Fish Stomach Records. Version 3.6. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK. Phase 3, Final Report, July 2011, 35pp.
4PRELIMINARY REPORT FROM A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DIET OF FOUR GADOID FISHES IN A FJORD OF WESTERN NORWAY, A.G. Vea Salvanes, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, C.M. 1986/G: 71, Demersal Fish Committee
5Food and Ontogenetic Shifts in Feeding of the Goosefish, Lophius Americanus, Michael P. Armstrong, John A. Musick, and James A. Colvocoresses, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 18: 99–103
6Feeding ecology of sympatric European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis and great cormorants P. carbo in Iceland, Kristjan Lilliendahl, Jon Solmundsson, Marine Biology (2006) 149: 979–990
7Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
8Annual Variation in Diet of Breeding Great Cormorants: Does it Reflect Varying Recruitment of Gadoids?, SVEIN-HÅKON LORENTSEN, DAVID GRÉMILLET AND GEIR HÅVARD NYMOEN, Waterbirds 27(2): 161-169, 2004
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License