Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Hippoglossoides > Hippoglossoides elassodon

Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole; Flathead sole; Cigarette paper)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on soft, silty or muddy bottoms at depths of up to 1,050 metres (3,440 ft). Its native habitat is the northern Pacific, from the seas of Japan and Okhotsk, across the Bering Sea and to the coast of North America, as far south as Point Reyes, USA. It grows to 52 centimetres (20 in) in length, and can weigh up to 1.56 kilograms (3.4 lb); females are typically larger than males. Lifespan is at least 27 years for females and at least 30 years for males.
View Wikipedia Record: Hippoglossoides elassodon


Migration [1]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap



Parasitized by 
Aporocotyle simplex[7]
Nybelinia surmenicola[7]
Parahemiurus merus[7]


Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; East Bering Sea; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Kuril Islands; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering Sea along the western coast of America to Pt. Reyes, central California, USA.; Oyashio Current; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
2Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p.
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Life history traits of sculpins in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, Todd T. TenBrink and Kerim Y. Aydin, NPRB Project 628 Final Report (2009)
5Diet of Pacific sleeper shark, Somniosus pacificus, in the Gulf of Alaska, Mei-Sun Yang and Benjamin N. Page, Fish. Bull. 97:406–409 (1999)
6Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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