Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cyprinodontiformes > Poeciliidae > Gambusia > Gambusia affinis

Gambusia affinis (Live-bearing tooth-carp; Mosquito fish; Mosquitofish; Mosquito-fish; Topminnow; Western mosquitofish)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is a species of freshwater fish, also known commonly, if ambiguously, as simply mosquitofish or by its generic name, Gambusia, or by the common name gambezi. There is also an eastern mosquitofish (G. holbrooki).
View Wikipedia Record: Gambusia affinis

Invasive Species

Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
View ISSG Record: Gambusia affinis


Adult Length [1]  1.575 inches (4 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  On/In self
Brood Guarder [2]  Yes
Litter Size [1]  315
Maximum Longevity [1]  3 years
Migration [2]  Potamodromous
Diet [3]  Planktivore, Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Female Maturity [1]  90 days
Male Maturity [4]  90 days


Protected Areas

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anguilla australis (Shortfin eel)2
Gobiomorphus cotidianus (Common bully)1
Retropinna retropinna (Smelt)1



Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; American Samoa; Amudar'ya; Argentina; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Australia; Australian; Balsas river; Bangladesh; Bolivia; Bulgaria; Cambodia; Canada; Central African Republic; Chile; China; Comoros; Cook Islands; Côte d'Ivoire; Danube; East Timor; Egypt; Erhjen River; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Fiji Islands; Former USSR - Inland waters; France; French Polynesia; Georgia; Ghana; Greece; Guam; Hawaii (USA); Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kaoping River; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Lake Waccamaw; Lao People's Dem. Rep.; Madagascar; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia,Fed.States of; Mississippi; Missouri; Morocco; Myanmar; Nearctic; New Zealand; North Marianas; North and Central America: Mississippi River basin from central Indiana and Illinois in USA south to Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Slope drainages west to Mexico. One of the species with the widest range of introductions which acquired for itself a near pan-g; North and Central America: Mississippi River basin from central Indiana and Illinois in USA south to Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Slope drainages west to Mexico. One of the species with the widest range of introductions which acquired for itself a near pan-global distribution (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Oceania - Inland waters; Oriental; Pakistan; Palearctic; Papua New Guinea; Peng-hu Island; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Rio Grande; Rodriguez; Romania; Russian Federation; Samoa; Serbia and Montenegro; Singapore; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tahiti; Taiwan; Tana River; Thailand; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Xi Jiang River; Zambezi; Zambia; Zimbabwe;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Relationship between turbidity and fish diets in Lakes Waahi and Whangape, New Zealand, John W. Hayes & Martin J. Rutledge, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 25:3, 297-304
7Seasonal diet of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea on an oceanic island (Tenerife, Canary Islands): indirect interaction with wild seed plants, Airam RODRÍGUEZ, Beneharo RODRÍGUEZ, Beatriz RUMEU & Manuel NOGALES, ACTA ORNITHOLOGICA Vol. 42 (2007) No. 1
8del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
9CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License