Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fabales > Fabaceae > Vachellia > Vachellia nilotica

Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree; Cassie; Cassie a Piquants Blancs; Piquant Lulu; Karuvel; Goma Arabica; Casha; Black Piquant; Acacia de Cayenne)

Synonyms: Acacia nilotica
Language: Hindi

Wikipedia Abstract

Vachellia nilotica (widely known by the taxonomic synonym Acacia nilotica, or the common names gum arabic tree, Babul/Kikar, Egyptian thorn, Sant tree, Al-sant or prickly acacia; called thorn mimosa or prickly acacia in Australia; lekkerruikpeul or scented thorn in South Africa; karuvela maram in South India) is a species of Vachellia native to Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It is also currently an invasive species of significant concern in Australia.
View Wikipedia Record: Vachellia nilotica


Invasive Species

Acacia nilotica is a small tree 4 to 5 metres tall that was initially introduced to tropical areas for shading and forage. It forms dense stands that limit access to water for livestock, diminish the quality of pasture and compete with native plants. Acacia nilotica is regarded in Australia as a pest plant of national importance.
View ISSG Record: Vachellia nilotica


Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  High
Janka Hardness [3]  2650 lbf (1202 kgf) Very Hard
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Specific Gravity [5]  0.723
Structure [2]  Tree
Height [1]  23 feet (6.9 m)
Width [1]  17 feet (5.3 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Low

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Algeria (native); Angola-ISO (native); Antigua-Barbuda (introduced); Australia (introduced); Bahamas (introduced); Bangladesh (native); Barbados (introduced); Botswana (native); China (introduced); Cuba (introduced); Egypt (native); Ethiopia (native); Galapagos (introduced); Gambia The (native); Ghana (native); Grenada (introduced); Guadeloupe (introduced); Guinea Bissau (native); Hainan (introduced); India (native); India-ISO (native); Iran (native); Iraq (native); Israel (native); Kenya (native); Libya (native); Madagascar (introduced); Malawi (native); Mali (native); Martinique (introduced); Mauritius (introduced); Montserrat (introduced); Mozambique (native); Nepal (native); Niger (native); Nigeria (native); Oman (native); Pakistan (native); Puerto Rico (introduced); Rodrigues (introduced); Senegal (native); Somalia (native); South Africa (native); Sri Lanka (introduced); St Lucia (introduced); St Martin-St Barthelemy (introduced); Sudan (native); Syria (native); Tanzania (native); Togo (native); Uganda (native); United States (introduced); Yemen (native); Zambia (native); Zimbabwe (native);

External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
5Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8Food habits of ungulates in dry tropical forests of Gir Lion Sanctuary, Gujarat, India, Jamal A. KHAN, Acta Theriologica 39 (2): 185-193,1994.
9Boselaphus tragocamelus, DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., MAMMALIAN SPECIES 813:1–16 (2008)
10FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF CAMEL REVIEW, Arshad Iqbal & Bakht Baidar Khan, Pak. J. Agri. Sei. Vol. 38 (3-4), 2001, p. 58-63
11Notes on Feeding and Breeding Habits of the Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica (Cinnyris asiaticus) in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Southern Iran, TAHER GHADIRIAN, ALI T. QASHQAEI & MOHSEN DADRAS, Podoces, 2007, 2(2): 122–126
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