Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Aptenodytes > Aptenodytes patagonicus

Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is the second largest species of penguin. In size it is second only to the emperor penguin. There are two subspecies—A. p. patagonicus and A. p. halli; patagonicus is found in the South Atlantic and halli elsewhere. King penguins eat small fish, mainly lanternfish, and squid and rely less than most Southern Ocean predators on krill and other crustaceans. On foraging trips they repeatedly dive to over 100 metres (330 ft), and have been recorded at depths greater than 300 metres (980 ft).
View Wikipedia Record: Aptenodytes patagonicus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 17.2393
EDGE Score: 2.90358


Clutch Size [3]  1
Incubation [1]  54 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  26 years
Speed [6]  4.968 MPH (2.221 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Adult Weight [2]  25.907 lbs (11.751 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  306 grams
Female Weight [2]  24.399 lbs (11.067 kg)
Male Weight [2]  27.415 lbs (12.435 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  12.4 %
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scotia Sea Islands tundra United Kingdom Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Marine Protected Area 264402758 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands      
Cape Peninsula National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Important Bird Areas

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap



Parasitized by 
Austrogoniodes brevipes[11]
Nesiotinus demersus[11]
Tetrabothrius pauliani[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2SAFRING, University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Avian Demography Unit
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Summer diet of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Falkland Islands, southern Atlantic Ocean, Yves Cherel, Klemens Pütz and Keith A. Hobson, Polar Biol (2002) 25: 898–906
9CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License