Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Spheniscus > Spheniscus humboldti

Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) (also termed Chilean penguin, Peruvian penguin, or patranca) is a South American penguin that breeds in coastal Chile and Peru. Its nearest relatives are the African penguin, the Magellanic penguin and the Galápagos penguin. The penguin is named after the cold water current it swims in, which is itself named after Alexander von Humboldt, an explorer. The species is listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.
View Wikipedia Record: Spheniscus humboldti

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.33589
EDGE Score: 3.62016


Clutch Size [1]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Fledging [2]  77 days
Incubation [1]  41 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years
Migration [1]  Intraoceanic
Snout to Vent Length [2]  28 inches (70 cm)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Adult Weight [2]  9.802 lbs (4.446 kg)
Female Weight [4]  8.922 lbs (4.047 kg)
Male Weight [4]  10.386 lbs (4.711 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [4]  16.4 %
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  70 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  30 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Atacama desert Chile Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile

Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Parasitized by 
Hirudinella ventricosa[7]
Parapsyllus humboldti[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


External References



California Academy of Sciences Penguin Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )
Feeding: Dly ,


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Zavalaga, CB and R. Paredes. 1997. Sex determination of adult Humboldt Penguins using morphometric characters. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:102-112
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile, C. Herling, B. M. Culik, J. C. Hennicke, Marine Biology (2005) 147: 13–25
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License