Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Pelecaniformes > Threskiornithidae > Eudocimus > Eudocimus albus

Eudocimus albus (White Ibis; American White Ibis)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The American white ibis (Eudocimus albus) is a species of bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae. It is found from North Carolina via the Gulf Coast of the United States south through most of the coastal New World tropics. This particular ibis is a medium-sized bird with an overall white plumage, bright red-orange down-curved bill and long legs, and black wing tips that are usually only visible in flight. Males are larger and have longer bills than females. The breeding range runs along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast, and the coasts of Mexico and Central America. Outside the breeding period, the range extends further inland in North America and also includes the Caribbean. It is also found along the northwestern South American coastline in Colombia and Venezuela. Populations in central Ve
View Wikipedia Record: Eudocimus albus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.6031
EDGE Score: 2.86807


Clutch Size [7]  2
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Fledging [2]  35 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  290,000
Incubation [4]  22 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  28 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [1]  24 inches (.62 m)
Adult Weight [2]  1.984 lbs (900 g)
Birth Weight [4]  36 grams
Female Weight [6]  1.684 lbs (764 g)
Male Weight [6]  2.284 lbs (1.036 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [6]  35.6 %
Breeding Habitat [3]  Wetlands, Mangroves
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread
Wintering Habitat [3]  Wetlands, Coastal saltmarshes, Agricultural
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [5]  60 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  10 %
Diet - Vertibrates [5]  30 %
Forages - Ground [5]  60 %
Forages - Water Surface [5]  40 %
Female Maturity [4]  2 years
Male Maturity [4]  2 years


Protected Areas

Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Belostoma lutarium[8]
Lethocerus americanus (giant water bug)[8]
Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin molly)[8]
Pomacea paludosa (Florida applesnail)[8]
Procambarus alleni (Southern crayfish)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Egretta tricolor (Tricolored Heron)1
Rostrhamus sociabilis (Snail Kite)1


Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator, Gator, American alligator, Florida alligator, Mississippi alligator, Louisiana alligator.)[9]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[9]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Caribbean; North America;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6Kushlan, JA 1977. Sexual dimorphism in the White Ibis. Wilson Bulletin 89:92–98
7Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
8FOOD OF THE WHITE IBIS IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA, James A. Kushlan and Marilyn S. Kushlan, Florida Field Naturalist Vol. 3 Fall 1975, p. 31-38
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License