Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Cygnus > Cygnus columbianus

Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)

Synonyms: Olor columbianus
Language: French; Spanish


Cygnus columbianus bewickii (Bewick's swan) (Attributes)
Cygnus columbianus columbianus (Whistling swan)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.00812
EDGE Score: 1.79311


Adult Weight [1]  14.881 lbs (6.75 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  179 grams
Female Weight [1]  13.889 lbs (6.30 kg)
Male Weight [1]  15.873 lbs (7.20 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  14.3 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Arctic coastal
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread U.S.
Wintering Habitat [2]  Wetlands, Agricultural
Diet [4]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [4]  100 %
Forages - Ground [4]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  50 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  220,000
Incubation [3]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  24 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  41.383 MPH (18.5 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  6.494 feet (1.98 m)


Protected Areas

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Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet



Parasitized by 
Amidostomum anseris <Unverified Name>[9]
Amidostomum cygni <Unverified Name>[9]
Catatropis cygni <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum orispinum <Unverified Name>[9]
Sarconema eurycerca <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Limpert, RJ, and Earnst, SL 1994. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus). In The birds of North America. No. 89. Edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund