Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Clangula > Clangula hyemalis

Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw; Long-tailed Duck)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), once known as oldsquaw, is a medium-sized sea duck. It is the only living member of its genus, Clangula. This was formerly used for the goldeneyes, with the long-tailed duck being placed in Harelda, but the latter is the type species of the genus. An undescribed congener is known from the Middle Miocene Sajóvölgyi Formation (Late Badenian, 13–12 Mya) of Mátraszőlős, Hungary.
View Wikipedia Record: Clangula hyemalis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.05359
EDGE Score: 3.58945


Adult Weight [1]  1.925 lbs (873 g)
Birth Weight [3]  25 grams
Female Weight [1]  1.795 lbs (814 g)
Male Weight [1]  2.055 lbs (932 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  14.5 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Coastal U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Coastal marine, Freshwater lakes and rivers
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  80 %
Diet - Plants [4]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [5]  7
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  2,300,000
Incubation [3]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  23 years
Migration [6]  Intracontinental
Speed [7]  49.212 MPH (22 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  28 inches (.71 m)


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (235)


Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

+ Click for partial list (19)Full list (110)



Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Palmer, RS 1962–1988 Handbook of North American Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven CT. Volumes 1–5
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Winter feeding ecology and trophic relationships of Oldsquaws and White-winged Scoters on Kachemak Bay, Alaska, Gerald A. Sanger and Robert D. Jones, Jr., Canadian Wildlife Service, 1984
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License