Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Melanitta > Melanitta fusca

Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter; Velvet Scoter)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca), also called a velvet duck, is a large sea duck, which breeds over the far north of Europe and Asia west of the Yenisey basin.The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek melas "black" and netta "duck". The species name is from the Latin fuscus "dusky brown". The lined nest is built on the ground close to the sea, lakes or rivers, in woodland or tundra, and typically contains 7–9 eggs. This duck dives for crustaceans and molluscs.
View Wikipedia Record: Melanitta fusca


Melanitta fusca deglandi (American white-winged scoter) (Attributes)
Melanitta fusca fusca (European white-winged scoter) (Attributes)
Melanitta fusca stejnegeri (Asiatic white-winged scoter)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.01996
EDGE Score: 1.79508


Adult Weight [1]  3.001 lbs (1.361 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  55 grams
Breeding Habitat [2]  Boreal forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Coastal U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Coastal marine, Rocky intertidal
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  80 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  80 %
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  8
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  230,000
Incubation [1]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Migration [5]  Intracontinental
Speed [6]  44.962 MPH (20.1 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  38 inches (.97 m)


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (335)


Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)2


Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)[7]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[7]
Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[7]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Central Park Zoo
Great Plains Zoo

Range Map


Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Prey selection and its relationship to habitat and foraging strategy of molting White-winged (Melanitta fusca) and Surf Scoters (M. perspicillata) in Puget Sound, WA, and the Strait of Georgia, BC., Heather J. Tschaekofske, Masters Thesis, Evergreen State College, 2010
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License