Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Oxyura > Oxyura jamaicensis

Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck)

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Oxyura jamaicensis jamaicensis (North American ruddy duck)
Oxyura jamaicensis rubida (Ruddy duck)

Invasive Species

Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck) is native to North America. It was imported into wildfowl collections in the UK in the 1940s and subsequently escaped to form a feral population from which birds are now spreading as far as Spain, where they threaten the globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) with extinction through introgressive hybridisation and competition. A regional trial of control measures, in which over 2,000 birds have been controlled, is ongoing in the UK. Control programmes are also in place in France, Spain and Portugal and are urgently needed in The Netherlands and Belgium. Oxyura jamaicensis are relatively easy to shoot as they tend not to leave water-bodies during control activities.
View ISSG Record: Oxyura jamaicensis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.68041
EDGE Score: 1.89918


Clutch Size [6]  8
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  1,200,000
Incubation [4]  23 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  14 years
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal, Brackish Water
Wing Span [7]  22 inches (.57 m)
Adult Weight [2]  1.34 lbs (608 g)
Birth Weight [4]  43 grams
Breeding Habitat [3]  Prairie wetlands, Freshwater marshes
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread
Wintering Habitat [3]  Freshwater lakes and rivers, Coastal marine
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  60 %
Diet - Seeds [5]  40 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  100 %
Female Maturity [4]  1 year
Male Maturity [4]  1 year


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (184)


Important Bird Areas

Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Cabral Lagoon Dominican Republic A1, A2, A4i, A4iii
Lago Cumbal Colombia A1
Laguna de Tota Colombia A1, A2
Salton Sea USA A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Sphaerium striatinum (striated fingernailclam)[8]


Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]


Parasite of 
Aythya americana (Redhead)[8]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Brua, Robert B. 2002. Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), In The Birds of North America, No. 696 (A. Poole, F. Gill Ed.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
10International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund