Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Falconiformes > Falconidae > Falco > Falco rusticolus

Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)

Synonyms: Falco rusticolus obsoletus; Falco rusticolus rusticolus; Falco rusticolus uralensis
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) (/ˈdʒɜːrfɔːlkən/ or /ˈdʒɜːrfælkən/), also spelled gerfalcon, is a bird of prey, the largest of the falcon species. The abbreviation gyr is also seen in the literature. It breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra, and the islands of northern North America, Europe, and Asia. It is mainly a resident there also, but some gyrfalcons disperse more widely after the breeding season, or in winter. Individual vagrancy can take birds for long distances. Its plumage varies with location, with birds being coloured from all-white to dark brown. These colour variations are called morphs. Like other falcons, it shows sexual dimorphism, with the female much larger than the male. For centuries the gyrfalcon has been a precious hunting bird, highly valued among the Vikings. Typical
View Wikipedia Record: Falco rusticolus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.60939
EDGE Score: 1.5281


Adult Weight [1]  3.221 lbs (1.461 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  52 grams
Female Weight [1]  3.863 lbs (1.752 kg)
Male Weight [1]  2.579 lbs (1.17 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  49.7 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Northern U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Generalist
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [4]  100 %
Forages - Aerial [4]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [4]  10 %
Forages - Understory [4]  10 %
Forages - Ground [4]  70 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  77,000
Incubation [3]  35 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  14 years
Wing Span [6]  3.936 feet (1.2 m)


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (102)


Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Japan Japan No

Emblem of

Northwest Territories

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[7]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[7]


Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Azas Zapovednik; Bonanza Creek LTER Site; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Ukkusiksalik National Park;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Brown, L., and D. Amadon. 1968. Eagles, hawks, and falcons of the world. McGraw-Hill, New York.
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
9Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
10Lepus arcticus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 457, pp. 1-9 (1994)
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Ramsar Sites Information Service
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Tawas Point State Park
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License