Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Galliformes > Phasianidae > Bonasa > Bonasa umbellus

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests from the Appalachian Mountains across Canada to Alaska. It is non-migratory. It is the only species in the genus Bonasa. The ruffed grouse is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "partridge", an unrelated phasianid, and occasionally confused with the grey partridge, a bird of open areas rather than woodlands. The ruffed grouse is the state bird of Pennsylvania, United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Bonasa umbellus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.9995
EDGE Score: 2.48487


Adult Weight [1]  1.173 lbs (532 g)
Birth Weight [1]  12 grams
Male Weight [5]  1.248 lbs (566 g)
Breeding Habitat [2]  Boreal forests, Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Boreal forests, Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Plants [3]  70 %
Forages - Understory [3]  40 %
Forages - Ground [3]  60 %
Female Maturity [1]  4 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 months
Clutch Size [4]  11
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  18,000,000
Incubation [1]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  11 years


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (114)


Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap



Alnus rubra (red alder)[6]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[6]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Minnesota Zoological Garden

Range Map


Fathom Five National Marine Park; Grandfather Mountain; North America; Saint Croix International Historic Site;

External References


Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Rusch, DH, DeStefano, S., Reynolds, MC & Lauten, D. 2000: Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus). - In: Poole, A. & Gill, F. (Eds.); The Birds of North America, No 515. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 pp
6Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Prey Abundance, Space Use, Demography, and Foraging Habitat of Northern Goshawks in Western Washington, Thomas David Bloxton, Jr., University of Washington 2002
9Davis, H., and RJ Cannings. 2008. Diet of Western Screech-Owls in the interior of British Columbia British Columbia Birds 18:19-22
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Tawas Point State Park
Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2