Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Numenius > Numenius phaeopus
 

Numenius phaeopus (Whimbrel)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across much of subarctic North America, Europe and Asia as far south as Scotland. This is a migratory species wintering on coasts in Africa, South America, south Asia into Australasia and southern North America. It is also a coastal bird during migration. It is fairly gregarious outside the breeding season.
View Wikipedia Record: Numenius phaeopus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
16
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
35
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 12.6877
EDGE Score: 2.61649

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  379 grams
Birth Weight [3]  35 grams
Female Weight [1]  404 grams
Male Weight [1]  355 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  13.8 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Boreal forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread Coastal
Wintering Habitat [2]  Beaches and estuaries
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  60 %
Diet - Plants [4]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  10 %
Forages - Understory [4]  20 %
Forages - Ground [4]  60 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  20 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  1,800,000
Incubation [3]  22 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  16 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  36.462 MPH (16.3 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  3.51 feet (1.07 m)

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (482)

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Emerita analoga (Pacific sand crab)[8]
Pachygrapsus crassipes (striped shore crab)[9]
Uca crenulata (Mexican fiddler)[9]
Uca uruguayensis[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Dresden GmbH

Range Map

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

External References

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Skeel, MA 1982. Sex determination of adult Whimbrels. J. Field Ornithol. 53:414-416
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Lafferty, K. D., R. F. Hechinger, J. C. Shaw, K. L. Whitney and A. M. Kuris (in press) Food webs and parasites in a salt marsh ecosystem. In Disease ecology: community structure and pathogen dynamics (eds S. Collinge and C. Ray). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
10"Predation on the southwestern Atlantic fiddler crab (Uca uruguayensis) by migratory shorebirds (Pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, Arenaria interpres, and Numenius phaeopus)", Oscar O. Iribarne, Mariano M. Martinez, Estuaries March 1999, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 47-54
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2